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10 Great New Year Goals: Eat Smart, Move, and Warm your Heart
Focus on 10 simple goals to boost mood, energize, and extend your “health-span”
1/3/2013
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by Craig Weatherby
 
The turn of the New Year is the traditional time to undertake resolutions.
 
We'd like to suggest 10 goals that can help you gain high levels of health and energy.
 
Despite American society's relative affluence, our way of life tends to make people tired, foggy, fat, depressed, diabetic, and prematurely disabled or dead.
 
In part, this is because U.S. agricultural subsidies make the least healthful fare artificially cheap, and do nothing to make the healthiest foods broadly affordable.
 
Each of our 10 resolutions can improve quality of life and reduce the ill effects of six mutually reinforcing drivers of premature aging and degenerative disease:
  1. Inactivity
  2. Overweight
  3. High blood sugar
  4. Silent inflammation
  5. Excessive oxidative stress
  6. Omega-3/6 fat intake ratio imbalance
These interlocking phenomena promote a cluster of six clinical symptoms—referred to as “metabolic syndrome” (MetS)—that promotes or exacerbates three leading causes of death in the U.S.: cardiovascular disease (CVD), cancer, and stroke.
 
MetS also plays a key role in causing three major afflictions of aging:
  • Diabetes (which promotes CVD, nerve damage and eye problems)
  • Alzheimer’s and Age-Related Cognitive Decline (i.e., senility)
  • Age-Related Macular Degeneration and Cataracts
With the motivation of staying maximally healthy in mind and body, let's get started!
 
If you have any serious health conditions, please consult your health care provider before tackling these 10 steps … except the first, which requires no medical clearance!
 
1) Stay Connected and Compassionate
Perhaps easier preached than practiced is the most basic thing: strengthen and expand your social circle and the emotional bonds to those closest to you. Compassion toward your broader community is an obvious corollary to this resolution… charity expresses compassion concretely and brings commensurate personal rewards.
 
2) Exercise Your Choice to Get Fit (or fitter)
Yes, it’s a cliché, but exercise is the indispensable ingredient in any list of resolutions.
 
If you’re already doing it, remember that it takes both kinds—aerobic exercise (jogging, walking, swimming, etc.) and resistance exercise (weights, machines, isometrics, pushups, sit-ups)—to achieve optimal weight control and preventive health results.
 
Outdoor exercise is ideal, because natural settings are proven to lift mood and build brain power … see “Get Out! Nature Boosts Brains and Spirits” in the General Weight & Fitness section of our news archive.
 
Work Your Heart and Lungs
Try to inject each day with more activity ... adults should aim for 30 minutes of moving, heart-pumping aerobic exercise, daily (e.g., walking, running, biking, swimming, and/or aerobic exercise machines).
 
Check out Be Active Your Way: A Guide for Adults, from the U.S. Department of Health & Human Services.
 
Build Muscle Strength
Just 10 minutes a day of strength training will give you more energy, stronger bones, and a faster metabolism that burns more calories while you’re at rest.
 
In addition to using free weights and resistance exercise machines (e.g., Nautilus), try the expert-ranked, equpiment-free exercises we found at at About.com:
3) Cut Salt Consumption
Many Americans consume a full teaspoon (6,000mg) of sodium daily, which is more than twice the recommended daily allowance (2,400mg).
 
Besides contributing to water retention, sodium can raise your blood pressure.
 
Processed foods contain the most, so make sure to read labels.
 
Lower-sodium diets are linked to decreased risk of heart disease and hypertension and improved weight management.
 
We’re doing our part with a selection of no-salt-added canned fish, and by using substantially less sodium in our smoked fish, compared with national brands.
 
We also offer a no-added-salt version of our popular Organic Salmon & Seafood marinade/rub mix.
 
4) Think Marine & Bean for Healthy Protein
Among protein sources, fish and beans rank as super-healthful choices.
 
Fish offers “complete” protein—that is, it contains all eight of the amino acids the body needs to build protein.
 
When combined with whole grains, beans provide high-quality, virtually fat-free protein.
 
And, contrary to long-standing myth, complementary protein sources don’t need to be consumed at the same meal for the body to use their amino acids to build protein.
 
Weight control with fish and beans
Being overweight in middle age has long-term implications for health and quality of life.
 
Weight control is largely – though not entirely – a function of the number of calories consumed and burned … and making smart food choices can enhance your efforts to regulate calorie intake.
 
Protein, like fat, is satiating, but it contains only half as many calories ounce for ounce.
 
Fish and beans are almost certainly the best protein sources for the purposes of weight control.
 
The special, long-chain omega-3s in fish decelerate oxidation/inflammation-driven aging and may aid weight control:
  • Omega-3s appear to boost calorie-burning directed toward raising body heat (thermogenesis), thereby reducing storage of dietary calories as body fat.
  • Omega-3s exert indirect, beneficial nutrigenomic influences on key metabolism-regulating “working” genes in human cells – genes that control the burning and storage of dietary sugars and fats.
  • Omega-3s curb production of synthase enzymes that promote the storage of calories as body fat.
To learn more, see “Weight Loss Efforts Aided by Omega-3s,” which contains links to other relevant reports.
 
Beans’ healthy balance of fats and their antioxidant phytoceuticals make them forceful anti-aging foods, and they are the best food sources of two potent weight control aids:
  • Fiber-like carbohydrates called resistant starches (RS) increase the rate at which the body burns (oxidizes) body fat, do not cause unhealthful spikes in blood sugar levels, and prevent other foods in a meal from causing them. Eating just a palm-full of beans will actually prevent sugar spikes from other, higher-glycemic foods in the meal. Dietary RS may even improve insulin sensitivity over time, based on the results of one small trial. And like omega-3s, RS also induces the body to burn more fat, for up to 24 hours.
  • Beans contain so-called “starch-blockers,” which hinder the enzyme (amylase) that digests starches.
Note: Measurable weight loss resulting from dietary amylase inhibitors has only been confirmed in clinical trials testing supplements containing purified phaseamolin: an amylase inhibitor extracted from white kidney beans.
 
For more, see the Vegetables & Beans section of our news archive.
 
Heart health with fish and beans
The heart-healthy properties of both fish and beans are well-documented, with seafood offering the strongest protection of the two categories of food, thanks to the multiple cardiac benefits of its omega-3 fatty acids.
 
Beans are very good sources of cholesterol-lowering fiber.
 
Cancer protection from fish?
Animal and cell studies indicate, strongly, that diets higher in marine-source omega-3s and lower in competing, pro-inflammatory omega-6s discourage cancer growth, and epidemiological studies also support this association.
(For more on this topic, see the Omega-3s & Immunity section of our news archive).
 
5) Cut Back on Refined Carbs
Refined sugars and foods made with white flour promote diabetes, heart disease, obesity, and the silent inflammation that fuels aging. 'Nuff said!
 
6) Serve Smaller Portions and Eat Slowly
Weight control is key to preventing MetS and diabetes.
 
To downsize your body mass index, start downsizing your dishes and take your time at meals.
 
Studies link smaller servings and slower eating with weight loss because both help prevent overeating.
 
To learn more, see “Portion Control for Weight Control,” “Slow Eating May Prevent Weight Gain,” and “French and American Eating Habits Affect Weight Gain” and other articles in the General Weight & Fitness  section of our news archive.
 
7) Get More Vitamin D
Recent research reports have weakened the disease-prevention prospects for supplemental vitamins ... even as others boosted the prevention potential of whole foods. (See “Whole Foods Seen Superior to Supplements”.)
 
But one supplemental nutrient continues to buck the downbeat trend.
 
Vitamin D is the long-overlooked superstar of human nutrition, whose broad-based, hormone-like actions affect almost every aspect of health.
 
A steady stream of studies indicates that vitamin D curbs cancer risks powerfully, aids bone health more than dietary calcium, and that the “sunshine-and-seafood” vitamin may play a key role in fighting the flu and other infections.
 
(To read about some of the recent studies, see the Vitamin D & Immunity section of our news archive.)
 
Diets that provide 1,000 international units (IU) of vitamin D3 or more daily appear to cut the risk of developing certain common cancers – including colon, breast, and ovarian cancer – by up to 50 percent.
 
This intake level, whose safety has been assessed and confirmed by the National Academy of Sciences, is more than double the current infancy-to-adulthood RDA of 600 IUs per day.
 
Leading vitamin D researchers want to see the RDA raised to 1,000 or 2,000 IU, and most recommend taking 2,000 to 4,000 IU daily.
 
There are only two rich sources of vitamin D: sunlight and fatty seafood.
 
Fatty fish are the richest known food sources, with several times more vitamin D than the next best food source, fortified milk (100 IU per 8 oz serving).
 
Wild sockeye salmon may contain more vitamin D than any other whole food (687 IU per 3.5 ounce serving), followed, among our fish selection, by albacore tuna (544 IU), silver salmon (430 IU), mackerel (320 IU), halibut (276 IU), king salmon (236 IU), sardines (222 IU), and sablefish (182 IU).
 
Our vitamin D chart shows the amounts of vitamin D, omega-3s, and other key nutrients provided by some of the species we sell.
 
And our Seafood Nutrition chart shows the vitamin D and omega-3 levels of most of our seafood species and products.
 
8) Follow the Rainbow (Foods)
The findings of numerous population studies indicate that diets high in fruits and vegetables yield reduced risks of cancer, heart disease, and obesity.
 
And this is probably because of their antioxidants and fiber.
 
When your body breaks down food it produces unstable molecules called free radicals.
 
Cigarette smoke, pollutants, and radiation also produce free radicals, as do the “glycation end products” produced in the body by browned foods.
 
The body uses its own “antioxidant network” – primarily, vitamins C and E, lipoic acid, coQ10, and selenium-dependent enzymes – to neutralize free radicals.
 
But poor diets and excessive stress can overwhelm this defense system.
 
Eventually, uncontrolled free radicals injure cells, and this damage can result in chronic inflammation, cancer, and heart disease.
 
You can help your body control free radicals—and the chronic, unnoticed inflammation they induce—by including “antioxidant-rich” foods in your diet ... generally meaning those highest in polyphenols.
 
Why do we put “antioxidant” between quotes? Polyphenols’ many apparent health benefits in humans appear to flow from their indirect but often-powerful “nutrigenomic” influences on gene expression affecting the body’s own antioxidant network ... rather than the direct antioxidant effects that most polyphenols produce in test tube experiments.
 
To counter the aging-accelerating effects of free radicals, put your dietary focus on antioxidant-rich plant foods.
 
Since many antioxidants are also pigments, vibrant red, yellow, green, purple, and blue fruits and vegetables fit the bill best.
 
(Researchers estimate the “antioxidant capacity” of fruits and vegetables using various methods, which produce generally similar rankings. The rankings presented here are based on the oxygen radical absorbance capacity or ORAC scale currently used by the USDA.)
 
Dark chocolate, natural (non-alkalized) cocoa, herbs, spices, tea, and colorful fruits and vegetables rank among the best sources of dietary antioxidants.
 
Top antioxidant fruits - whether firsh, frozen, or dried - include:
Cherries, cranberries, blueberries, blackberries, strawberries, and raspberries.
 
Ounce for ounce, herbs and spices beat all fruits and vegetables when it comes to antioxidant, anti-inflammatory power, and offer other preventive-health phytoceuticals.
 
For example:
  • Cinnamon helps control blood sugar levels.
  • Turmeric’s yellow pigment (curcumin) helps control blood sugar and curb cancer growth.
  • Chilies may aid weight control.
  • Rosemary and thyme provide brain cells with powerful protection against oxidation.
9) Cook in Mono for Sound Health
By now, almost everyone has heard of the heart-disease and cancer prevention powers attributed to the so-called Mediterranean Diet, which is high in fish, vegetables, and olive oil.
 
Until recently, all of the benefits of olive oil have been linked to its unusually high monounsaturated fat content.
 
New research suggests that the extremely potent tyrosol-type antioxidants abundant in extra virgin olive oil (but not in lesser grades) may be as big a factor in its heart health benefits. (To read about the relevant research, see the Olive Oil & Other Oils section of our news archive).
 
It also makes sense to favor cooking oils high in monounsaturated fats—especially extra virgin olive—to help redress the excess of pro-inflammatory omega-6 fats found in most Americans’ diets.
 
10) Go Whole Grain to Slow Aging and Weight Gain, Enhance Heart Health
Foods made from refined, white flour fuel two key engines of aging—insulin resistance and inflammation.
 
Diets high in whole grains sidestep these effects and are also proven to help curb weight gain (For more on this, see Whole Grains Affirmed as Good for Hearts and Waists).
 
The fiber in whole grains—especially the soluble kind in oats and barley—also helps improve consumers’ blood-cholesterol profiles.
 
Oats have long been the subject of an approved heart-health claim, and in 2005, the Food and Drug Administration announced that whole grain barley and products containing it would also be allowed to state that they may reduce the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD).
 
And, to many observers’ surprise, recent research shows that common whole grains—especially wheat, corn, and buckwheat—offer a long-overlooked abundance of anti-aging “antioxidants” (polyphenols).
 
 
Now, get going!
 
You may have seen some of the many media reports saying that most people abandon their resolutions pretty quickly.
 
The best approach to any dietary makeover is to start right in, and get your spouse, children, or housemate(s) to join you.
 
We wish you success in sticking to all of your resolutions!
 
 
Sources

General weight, health, and fitness

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Chocolate

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· Grassi D, Necozione S, Lippi C, Croce G, Valeri L, Pasqualetti P, Desideri G, Blumberg JB, Ferri C. Cocoa reduces blood pressure and insulin resistance and improves endothelium-dependent vasodilation in hypertensives. Hypertension. 2005 Aug;46(2):398-405. Epub 2005 Jul 18.

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· Mao TK, Powell JJ, Van De Water J, Keen CL, Schmitz HH, Gershwin ME. The influence of cocoa procyanidins on the transcription of interleukin-2 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Int J Immunotherapy 1999;15:23-9

· Mursu J, Voutilainen S, Nurmi T, Rissanen TH, Virtanen JK, Kaikkonen J, Nyyssonen K, Salonen JT. Dark chocolate consumption increases HDL cholesterol concentration and chocolate fatty acids may inhibit lipid peroxidation in healthy humans. Free Radic Biol Med. 2004 Nov 1;37(9):1351-9.

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· Rein D, Lotito S, Holt RR, Keen CL, Schmitz HH, Fraga CG. Epicatechin in human plasma: in vivo determination and effect of chocolate consumption on plasma antioxidant capacity. J Nutr 2000;130(8):2109S-14S

· Rein D, Paglieroni TG, Wun T, Pearson DA, Schmitz HH, Gosselin R, Keen CL. Cocoa inhibits platelet activation and function. Am J Clin Nutr 2000;72(1):30-5

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· Schramm DD, Wang JF, Holt RR, Ensunsa JL, Gonsalves JL, Lazarus SA, Schmitz HH, German JB, Keen CL. Chocolate procyanidins decrease the leukotriene-prostacyclin ratio in humans and human aortic endothelial cells. Am J Clin Nutr 2001;73(1):36-40.

· Schramm DD, Wang JF, Holt RR, Ensunsa JL, Lazarus SA, Schmitz HH, German JB, Keen CL. Chocolate procyanidins decrease the leukotriene-prostacyclin ratio in humans and human aortic endothelial cells, Am J Clin Nutr 2001;73(1):36-40.

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· Wan Y, Vinson JA, Etherton TD, Proch J, Lazarus SA, Kris-Etherton PM. Effects of cocoa powder and dark chocolate on LDL oxidative susceptibility and prostaglandin concentrations in humans. Am J Clin Nutr 2001 Nov;74(5):596-602

· Wang JF, Schramm DD, Holt RR, Ensunsa JL, Fraga CG, Schmitz HH, Keen CL. A dose-response effect from chocolate consumption on plasma epicatechin and oxidative damage. J Nutr 2000;130(8):2115S-9S.

Dairy

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· Barr SI. Increased dairy product or calcium intake: is body weight or composition affected in humans? J Nutr. 2003 Jan;133(1):245S-248S. Review.·Barr SI. Increased dairy product or calcium intake: is body weight or composition affected in humans? J Nutr. 2003 Jan;133(1):245S-248S. Review.

· Bianchi G, Marzocchi R, Agostini F, Marchesini G. Update on nutritional supplementation with branched-chain amino acids. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2005 Jan;8(1):83-7. Review.·Bianchi G, Marzocchi R, Agostini F, Marchesini G. Update on nutritional supplementation with branched-chain amino acids. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2005 Jan;8(1):83-7. Review.

· Bowen J, Noakes M, Clifton PM. Effect of calcium and dairy foods in high protein, energy-restricted diets on weight loss and metabolic parameters in overweight adults. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2005 Feb 15; [Epub ahead of print]·Bowen J, Noakes M, Clifton PM. Effect of calcium and dairy foods in high protein, energy-restricted diets on weight loss and metabolic parameters in overweight adults. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2005 Feb 15; [Epub ahead of print]

· Carruth BR, Skinner JD. The role of dietary calcium and other nutrients in modeCW Rating body fat in preschool children. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2001 Apr;25(4):559-66.·Carruth BR, Skinner JD. The role of dietary calcium and other nutrients in modeCW Rating body fat in preschool children. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2001 Apr;25(4):559-66.

· Chan GM, Hoffman K, McMurry M. Effects of dairy products on bone and body composition in pubertal girls. J Pediatr. 1995 Apr;126(4):551-6.·Chan GM, Hoffman K, McMurry M. Effects of dairy products on bone and body composition in pubertal girls. J Pediatr. 1995 Apr;126(4):551-6.

· Cheirsilp B, Shimizu H, Shioya S. Enhanced kefiran production by mixed culture of Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Biotechnol. 2003 Jan 9;100(1):43-53.·Cheirsilp B, Shimizu H, Shioya S. Enhanced kefiran production by mixed culture of Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Biotechnol. 2003 Jan 9;100(1):43-53.

· Davies KM, Heaney RP, Recker RR, Lappe JM, Barger-Lux MJ, Rafferty K, Hinders S. Calcium intake and body weight. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2000 Dec;85(12):4635-8.·Davies KM, Heaney RP, Recker RR, Lappe JM, Barger-Lux MJ, Rafferty K, Hinders S. Calcium intake and body weight. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2000 Dec;85(12):4635-8.

· Davies, KM, Heaney, RP, Recker, RR, et al (2000) Calcium intake and body weight J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 85,4635-4638·Davies, KM, Heaney, RP, Recker, RR, et al (2000) Calcium intake and body weight J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 85,4635-4638

· Dewhurst RJ, Fisher WJ, Tweed JKS, Wilkins R J (2003). Comparison of grass and legume silages for milk production. 1. Production responses with different levels of concentrate. Journal of Dairy Science (volume 86 pages 2598-2611)·Dewhurst RJ, Fisher WJ, Tweed JKS, Wilkins R J (2003). Comparison of grass and legume silages for milk production. 1. Production responses with different levels of concentrate. Journal of Dairy Science (volume 86 pages 2598-2611)

· Elmer GW, Surawicz CM, McFarland LV. Biotherapeutic agents.JAMA 1996;275:870–6.·Elmer GW, Surawicz CM, McFarland LV. Biotherapeutic agents.JAMA 1996;275:870–6.

· Frengova GI, Simova ED, Beshkova DM, Simov ZI. Exopolysaccharides produced by lactic acid bacteria of kefir grains. Z Naturforsch [C]. 2002 Sep-Oct;57(9-10):805-10.·Frengova GI, Simova ED, Beshkova DM, Simov ZI. Exopolysaccharides produced by lactic acid bacteria of kefir grains. Z Naturforsch [C]. 2002 Sep-Oct;57(9-10):805-10.

· Gluck U, Gebbers JO. Ingested probiotics reduce nasal colonization with pathogenic bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and beta-hemolytic streptococci). Am J Clin Nutr. 2003 Feb;77(2):517-20.·Gluck U, Gebbers JO. Ingested probiotics reduce nasal colonization with pathogenic bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and beta-hemolytic streptococci). Am J Clin Nutr. 2003 Feb;77(2):517-20.

· Gunther CW, Legowski PA, Lyle RM, McCabe GP, Eagan MS, Peacock M, Teegarden D. Dairy products do not lead to alterations in body weight or fat mass in young women in a 1-y intervention. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005 Apr;81(4):751-6.·Gunther CW, Legowski PA, Lyle RM, McCabe GP, Eagan MS, Peacock M, Teegarden D. Dairy products do not lead to alterations in body weight or fat mass in young women in a 1-y intervention. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005 Apr;81(4):751-6.

· Heaney RP, Davies KM, Barger-Lux MJ. Calcium and weight: clinical studies. J Am Coll Nutr. 2002 Apr;21(2):152S-155S. Review.·Heaney RP, Davies KM, Barger-Lux MJ. Calcium and weight: clinical studies. J Am Coll Nutr. 2002 Apr;21(2):152S-155S. Review.

· Heaney, RP. (2003) Normalizing calcium intake: projected population effects for body weight J Nutr. 133,268s-270s·Heaney, RP. (2003) Normalizing calcium intake: projected population effects for body weight J Nutr. 133,268s-270s

· Hilton E, Isenberg HD, Alperstein P, et al. Ingestion of yogurt containing Lactobacillus acidophilus as prophylaxis for candidal vaginitis. Ann Intern Med 1992;116:353–7.·Hilton E, Isenberg HD, Alperstein P, et al. Ingestion of yogurt containing Lactobacillus acidophilus as prophylaxis for candidal vaginitis. Ann Intern Med 1992;116:353–7.

· Kailasapathy K, Chin J. Survival and therapeutic potential of probiotic organisms with reference to Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium spp. Immunol Cell Biol. 2000 Feb;78(1):80-8. Review.·Kailasapathy K, Chin J. Survival and therapeutic potential of probiotic organisms with reference to Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium spp. Immunol Cell Biol. 2000 Feb;78(1):80-8. Review.

· Lin YC, Lyle RM, McCabe LD, McCabe GP, Weaver CM, Teegarden D. Dairy calcium is related to changes in body composition during a two-year exercise intervention in young women. J Am Coll Nutr. 2000 Nov-Dec;19(6):754-60.·Lin YC, Lyle RM, McCabe LD, McCabe GP, Weaver CM, Teegarden D. Dairy calcium is related to changes in body composition during a two-year exercise intervention in young women. J Am Coll Nutr. 2000 Nov-Dec;19(6):754-60.

· Lin YC, Lyle RM, McCabe LD, McCabe GP, Weaver CM, Teegarden D. Dairy calcium is related to changes in body composition during a two-year exercise intervention in young women. J Am Coll Nutr. 2000 Nov-Dec;19(6):754-60.·Lin YC, Lyle RM, McCabe LD, McCabe GP, Weaver CM, Teegarden D. Dairy calcium is related to changes in body composition during a two-year exercise intervention in young women. J Am Coll Nutr. 2000 Nov-Dec;19(6):754-60.

· Mack DR, Lebel S. Role of probiotics in the modulation of intestinal infections and inflammation. Curr Opin Gastroenterol. 2004 Jan;20(1):22-6.·Mack DR, Lebel S. Role of probiotics in the modulation of intestinal infections and inflammation. Curr Opin Gastroenterol. 2004 Jan;20(1):22-6.

· Marteau P, Seksik P, Lepage P, Dore J. Cellular and physiological effects of probiotics and prebiotics. Mini Rev Med Chem. 2004 Oct;4(8):889-96. Review.·Marteau P, Seksik P, Lepage P, Dore J. Cellular and physiological effects of probiotics and prebiotics. Mini Rev Med Chem. 2004 Oct;4(8):889-96. Review.

· Morris K, Wang Y, Kim SY, Moustaid-Moussa N. Dietary and hormonal regulation of the mammalian fatty acid synthase gene. In: Moustaid-Moussa N, Berdanier CD, eds. Nutrient-Gene Interactions in Health and Disease. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press; 2001.·Morris K, Wang Y, Kim SY, Moustaid-Moussa N. Dietary and hormonal regulation of the mammalian fatty acid synthase gene. In: Moustaid-Moussa N, Berdanier CD, eds. Nutrient-Gene Interactions in Health and Disease. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press; 2001.

· Mullally MM, Meisel H, FitzGerald RJ. Identification of a novel angiotensin-l-converting enzyme inhibitory peptide corresponding to a tryptic fragment of bovine beta-lactoglobulin. FEBS Lett. 1997;402:99-101.·Mullally MM, Meisel H, FitzGerald RJ. Identification of a novel angiotensin-l-converting enzyme inhibitory peptide corresponding to a tryptic fragment of bovine beta-lactoglobulin. FEBS Lett. 1997;402:99-101.

· Nikolaeva TN, Zorina VV, Bondarenko VM. [Immunostimulating and anti-carcinogenic activity of the normal intestinal lactoflora] Eksp Klin Gastroenterol. 2004;(4):39-43, 109. Review. Russian.·Nikolaeva TN, Zorina VV, Bondarenko VM. [Immunostimulating and anti-carcinogenic activity of the normal intestinal lactoflora] Eksp Klin Gastroenterol. 2004;(4):39-43, 109. Review. Russian.

· Nikolaeva TN, Zorina VV, Bondarenko VM. [The role of cytokines in the immunoreactivity modulation with bacteria of the Lactobacillus genus] Zh Mikrobiol Epidemiol Immunobiol. 2004 Nov-Dec;(6):101-6. Review. Russian.·Nikolaeva TN, Zorina VV, Bondarenko VM. [The role of cytokines in the immunoreactivity modulation with bacteria of the Lactobacillus genus] Zh Mikrobiol Epidemiol Immunobiol. 2004 Nov-Dec;(6):101-6. Review. Russian.

· Noverr MC, Huffnagle GB. Does the microbiota regulate immune responses outside the gut? Trends Microbiol. 2004 Dec;12(12):562-8. Review.·Noverr MC, Huffnagle GB. Does the microbiota regulate immune responses outside the gut? Trends Microbiol. 2004 Dec;12(12):562-8. Review.

· Papakonstantinou E, Flatt WP, Huth PJ, Harris RB. High dietary calcium reduces body fat content, digestibility of fat, and serum vitamin D in rats. Obes Res. 2003 Mar;11(3):387-94.·Papakonstantinou E, Flatt WP, Huth PJ, Harris RB. High dietary calcium reduces body fat content, digestibility of fat, and serum vitamin D in rats. Obes Res. 2003 Mar;11(3):387-94.

· Perdigon G, Alvarez S, Rachid M, Aguero G, Gobbato N. Immune system stimulation by probiotics. J Dairy Sci. 1995 Jul;78(7):1597-606. Review.·Perdigon G, Alvarez S, Rachid M, Aguero G, Gobbato N. Immune system stimulation by probiotics. J Dairy Sci. 1995 Jul;78(7):1597-606. Review.

· Perdigon G, Maldonado Galdeano C, Valdez JC, Medici M. Interaction of lactic acid bacteria with the gut immune system. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2002 Dec;56 Suppl 4:S21-6.·Perdigon G, Maldonado Galdeano C, Valdez JC, Medici M. Interaction of lactic acid bacteria with the gut immune system. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2002 Dec;56 Suppl 4:S21-6.

· Perdigon G, Vintini E, Alvarez S, Medina M, Medici M. Study of the possible mechanisms involved in the mucosal immune system activation by lactic acid bacteria. J Dairy Sci. 1999 Jun;82(6):1108-14.·Perdigon G, Vintini E, Alvarez S, Medina M, Medici M. Study of the possible mechanisms involved in the mucosal immune system activation by lactic acid bacteria. J Dairy Sci. 1999 Jun;82(6):1108-14.

· Pihlanto-Leppala A, Koskinen P, Piilola K, Tupasela T, Korhonen H. Angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitory properties of whey protein digests: concentration and characterization of active peptides. J Dairy Res. 2000;67:53-64.·Pihlanto-Leppala A, Koskinen P, Piilola K, Tupasela T, Korhonen H. Angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitory properties of whey protein digests: concentration and characterization of active peptides. J Dairy Res. 2000;67:53-64.

· Reid G, Millsap K, Bruce AW. Implantation of Lactobacillus casei var rhamnosus into vagina. Lancet 1994;344:1229.·Reid G, Millsap K, Bruce AW. Implantation of Lactobacillus casei var rhamnosus into vagina. Lancet 1994;344:1229.

· Robertson J, Fanning C, (2004). Omega 3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Organic and Conventional Milk. Summary report. Accessed online December 29, 2005 at http://www.abdn.ac.uk/mediareleases/release.php?id=82·Robertson J, Fanning C, (2004). Omega 3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Organic and Conventional Milk. Summary report. Accessed online December 29, 2005 at http://www.abdn.ac.uk/mediareleases/release.php?id=82

· Shah NP. Effects of milk-derived bioactives: an overview. Br J Nutr. 2000;84(suppl 1):S3-S10.·Shah NP. Effects of milk-derived bioactives: an overview. Br J Nutr. 2000;84(suppl 1):S3-S10.

· Skinner JD, Bounds W, Carruth BR, Ziegler P. Longitudinal calcium intake is negatively related to children's body fat indexes. J Am Diet Assoc. 2003 Dec;103(12):1626-31.·Skinner JD, Bounds W, Carruth BR, Ziegler P. Longitudinal calcium intake is negatively related to children's body fat indexes. J Am Diet Assoc. 2003 Dec;103(12):1626-31.

· Teegarden D, Zemel MB. Dairy product components and weight regulation: symposium overview. J Nutr. 2003;133:243S-244S.·Teegarden D, Zemel MB. Dairy product components and weight regulation: symposium overview. J Nutr. 2003;133:243S-244S.

· Teegarden D. Calcium intake and reduction in weight or fat mass. J Nutr. 133, 1:249S-251S, 2003. www.jacn.org·Teegarden D. Calcium intake and reduction in weight or fat mass. J Nutr. 133, 1:249S-251S, 2003. www.jacn.org

· Thoreux K, Schmucker DL. Kefir milk enhances intestinal immunity in young but not old rats. J Nutr. 2001 Mar;131(3):807-12.·Thoreux K, Schmucker DL. Kefir milk enhances intestinal immunity in young but not old rats. J Nutr. 2001 Mar;131(3):807-12.

· Wang KY, Li SN, Liu CS, Perng DS, Su YC, Wu DC, Jan CM, Lai CH, Wang TN, Wang WM. Effects of ingesting Lactobacillus- and Bifidobacterium-containing yogurt in subjects with colonized Helicobacter pylori. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004 Sep;80(3):737-41.·Wang KY, Li SN, Liu CS, Perng DS, Su YC, Wu DC, Jan CM, Lai CH, Wang TN, Wang WM. Effects of ingesting Lactobacillus- and Bifidobacterium-containing yogurt in subjects with colonized Helicobacter pylori. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004 Sep;80(3):737-41.

· Xiao JZ, Kondo S, Takahashi N, Miyaji K, Oshida K, Hiramatsu A, Iwatsuki K, Kokubo S, Hosono A. Effects of milk products fermented by Bifidobacterium longum on blood lipids in rats and healthy adult male volunteers. J Dairy Sci. 2003 Jul;86(7):2452-61.·Xiao JZ, Kondo S, Takahashi N, Miyaji K, Oshida K, Hiramatsu A, Iwatsuki K, Kokubo S, Hosono A. Effects of milk products fermented by Bifidobacterium longum on blood lipids in rats and healthy adult male volunteers. J Dairy Sci. 2003 Jul;86(7):2452-61.

· Zemel MB, Miller SL. Dietary calcium and dairy modulation of adiposity and obesity risk. Nutr Rev. 2004 Apr;62(4):125-31. Review.·Zemel MB, Miller SL. Dietary calcium and dairy modulation of adiposity and obesity risk. Nutr Rev. 2004 Apr;62(4):125-31. Review.

· Zemel MB, Shi H, Zemel PC, DiRienzo D. Calcium and calcium-rich dairy products reduce body fat. FASEB J 1999 12:LB211(abs.).·Zemel MB, Shi H, Zemel PC, DiRienzo D. Calcium and calcium-rich dairy products reduce body fat. FASEB J 1999 12:LB211(abs.).

· Zemel MB, Thompson W, Milstead A, Morris K, Campbell P. Calcium and dairy acceleration of weight and fat loss during energy restriction in obese adults. Obes Res. 2004 Apr;12(4):582-90.·Zemel MB, Thompson W, Milstead A, Morris K, Campbell P. Calcium and dairy acceleration of weight and fat loss during energy restriction in obese adults. Obes Res. 2004 Apr;12(4):582-90.

· Zemel MB. Nutritional and endocrine modulation of intracellular calcium: implications in obesity, insulin resistance and hypertension. Mol Cell Biochem. 1998 Nov;188(1-2):129-36. Review.·Zemel MB. Nutritional and endocrine modulation of intracellular calcium: implications in obesity, insulin resistance and hypertension. Mol Cell Biochem. 1998 Nov;188(1-2):129-36. Review.

· Zemel MB. Regulation of adiposity and obesity risk by dietary calcium: mechanisms and implications. J Am Coll Nutr. 2002 Apr;21(2):146S-151S. Review.·Zemel MB. Regulation of adiposity and obesity risk by dietary calcium: mechanisms and implications. J Am Coll Nutr. 2002 Apr;21(2):146S-151S. Review.

· Zemel MB. Role of calcium and dairy products in energy partitioning and weight management. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004 May;79(5):907S-912S. Review.·Zemel MB. Role of calcium and dairy products in energy partitioning and weight management. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004 May;79(5):907S-912S. Review.

Exercise

· President's Council on Physical Fitness and Sports (PCPFS). Accessed online at http://fitness.gov/physical_activity_fact_sheet.html.

· McArdle WD, Katch FI, Katch VL. Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition and Human Performance" (2nd edition), Lea & Febiger, Philadelphia, 1986.

· Manco M, Calvani M, Mingrone G. Effects of dietary fatty acids on insulin sensitivity and secretion. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2004 Nov;6(6):402-13. Review.

Fish

· Browning LM. n-3 Polyunsaturated fatty acids, inflammation and obesity-related disease. Proc Nutr Soc. 2003 May;62(2):447-53. Review.

· Clarke SD, Thuillier P, Baillie RA, Sha X. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors: a family of lipid-activated transcription factors. Am J Clin Nutr. 1999 Oct;70(4):566-71. Review. Biochimie 1998;79:95-99

· Clarke SD. Polyunsaturated fatty acid regulation of gene transcription: a mechanism to improve energy balance and insulin resistance. Br J Nutr. 2000 Mar;83 Suppl 1:S59-66. Review.

· Clarke SD. Polyunsaturated fatty acid regulation of gene transcription: a mechanism to improve energy balance and insulin resistance. Br J Nutr. 2000 Mar;83 Suppl 1:S59-66. Review.

· Delarue J, LeFoll C, Corporeau C, Lucas D. N-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids: a nutritional tool to prevent insulin resistance associated to type 2 diabetes and obesity? Reprod Nutr Dev. 2004 May-Jun;44(3):289-99. Review

· Duplus E, Glorian M, Forest C. Fatty acid regulation of gene transcription. J Biol Chem. 2000 Oct 6;275(40):30749-52. Review.

· Field FJ, Born E, Murthy S, Mathur SN. Polyunsaturated fatty acids decrease the expression of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1 in CaCo-2 cells: effect on fatty acid synthesis and triacylglycerol transport. Biochem J. 2002 Dec 15;368(Pt 3):855-64.

· Garvey WT. The role of uncoupling protein 3 in human physiology. J Clin Invest. 2003 Feb;111(4):438-41.

· J Nutr 1998;128:923-926 Sessler AM, Ntambi JM. Polyunsaturated fatty acid regulation of gene expression. J Nutr. 1998 Jun;128(6):923-6. Review.

· Jump DB, Clarke SD. Regulation of gene expression by dietary fat. Annu Rev Nutr. 1999;19:63-90. Review.

· Kuriki K, Nagaya T, Tokudome Y, Imaeda N, Fujiwara N, Sato J, Goto C, Ikeda M, Maki S, Tajima K, Tokudome S. Plasma concentrations of (n-3) highly unsaturated fatty acids are good biomarkers of relative dietary fatty acid intakes: a cross-sectional study. J Nutr. 2003 Nov;133(11):3643-50.

· Li H, Ruan XZ, Powis SH, Fernando R, Mon WY, Wheeler DC, Moorhead JF, Varghese Z. EPA and DHA reduce LPS-induced inflammation responses in HK-2 cells: evidence for a PPAR-gamma-dependent mechanism. Kidney Int. 2005 Mar;67(3):867-74

· Lovejoy JC. The influence of dietary fat on insulin resistance. Curr Diab Rep. 2002 Oct;2(5):435-40. Review.

· Massiera F, Saint-Marc P, Seydoux J, Murata T, Kobayashi T, Narumiya S, Guesnet P, Amri EZ, Negrel R, Ailhaud G. Arachidonic acid and prostacyclin signaling promote adipose tissue development: a human health concern? J Lipid Res. 2003 Feb;44(2):271-9. Epub 2002 Nov 04.

· Mishra A, Chaudhary A, Sethi S. Oxidized omega-3 fatty acids inhibit NF-kappaB activation via a PPARalpha-dependent pathway. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2004 Sep;24(9):1621-7. Epub 2004 Jul 1.

· Mori TA, Bao DQ, Burke V, Puddey IB, Watts GF, Beilin LJ. Dietary fish as a major component of a weight-loss diet: effect on serum lipids, glucose, and insulin metabolism in overweight hypertensive subjects. Am J Clin Nutr. 1999 Nov;70(5):817-25.

· Mori TA, Burke V, Puddey IB, Shaw JE, Beilin LJ. Effect of fish diets and weight loss on serum leptin concentration in overweight, treated-hypertensive subjects. J Hypertens. 2004 Oct;22(10):1983-90.

· Oudart H, Groscolas R, Calgari C, Nibbelink M, Leray C, Le Maho Y, Malan A. Brown fat thermogenesis in rats fed high-fat diets enriched with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 1997 Nov;21(11):955-62.

· Pischon T, Hankinson SE, Hotamisligil GS, Rifai N, Willett WC, Rimm EB. Habitual dietary intake of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids in relation to inflammatory markers among US men and women. Circulation. 2003 Jul 15;108(2):155-60. Epub 2003 Jun 23.

· Power GW, Newsholme EA. Dietary fatty acids influence the activity and metabolic control of mitochondrial carnitine palmitoyltransferase I in rat heart and skeletal muscle. J Nutr. 1997 Nov;127(11):2142-50.

· Rivellese AA, Lilli S. Quality of dietary fatty acids, insulin sensitivity and type 2 diabetes. Biomed Pharmacother. 2003 Mar;57(2):84-7. Review.

· Simopoulos AP.Omega-3 fatty acids in inflammation and autoimmune diseases. J Am Coll Nutr. 2002 Dec;21(6):495-505.

· Sulzle A, Hirche F, Eder K. Thermally oxidized dietary fat upregulates the expression of target genes of PPAR alpha in rat liver. J Nutr. 2004 Jun;134(6):1375-83.

· Ukropec J, Reseland JE, Gasperikova D, Demcakova E, Madsen L, Berge RK, Rustan AC, Klimes I, Drevon CA, Sebokova E. The hypotriglyceridemic effect of dietary n-3 FA is associated with increased beta-oxidation and reduced leptin expression. Lipids. 2003 Oct;38(10):1023-9.

· Vessby B, Unsitupa M, Hermansen K, Riccardi G, Rivellese AA, Tapsell LC, Nalsen C, Berglund L, Louheranta A, Rasmussen BM, Calvert GD, Maffetone A, Pedersen E, Gustafsson IB, Storlien LH; KANWU Study. Substituting dietary saturated for monounsaturated fat impairs insulin sensitivity in healthy men and women: The KANWU Study. Diabetologia. 2001 Mar;44(3):312-9.

· Zhao Y, Joshi-Barve S, Barve S, Chen LH. Eicosapentaenoic acid prevents LPS-induced TNF-alpha expression by preventing NF-kappaB activation. J Am Coll Nutr. 2004 Feb;23(1):71-8

Fruits

· Boivin M, Flourie B, Rizza RA, et al. Gastrointestinal and metabolic effects of amylase inhibition in diabetics. Gastroenterology 1988;94:387–94.

· Boivin M, Flourie B, Rizza RA, et al. Gastrointestinal and metabolic effects of amylase inhibition in diabetics. Gastroenterology 1988;94:387–94.

· Boivin M, Zinsmeister AR, Go VL, DiMagno EP. Effect of a purified amylase inhibitor on carbohydrate metabolism after a mixed meal in healthy humans. Mayo Clin Proc 1987;62:249–55.

· Boivin M, Zinsmeister AR, Go VL, DiMagno EP. Effect of a purified amylase inhibitor on carbohydrate metabolism after a mixed meal in healthy humans. Mayo Clin Proc 1987;62:249–55.

· Bo-Linn GW, Santa Ana CA, Morawski SG, Fordtran JS. Starch blockers—their effect on calorie absorption from a high-starch meal. N Engl J Med 1982;307:1413–6.

· Brugge WR, Rosenfeld MS. Impairment of starch absorption by a potent amylase inhibitor. Am J Gastroenterol 1987;82:718–22.

· Carlson GL, Li BU, Bass P, Olsen WA. A bean alpha-amylase inhibitor formulation (starch blocker) is ineffective in man. Science 1983;219:393–5.

· Crespy, V et al. Bioavailability of Phloretin and Phloridzin in Rats. Journal of Nutrition. 2001. 131: 3227-3230.

· Ding M, Lu Y, Bowman L, Huang C, Leonard S, Wang L, Vallyathan V, Castranova V, Shi X. Inhibition of AP-1 and neoplastic transformation by fresh apple peel extract. J Biol Chem. 2004 Mar 12;279(11):10670-6. Epub 2003 Dec 9.

· Englyst HN, Veenstra J, Hudson GJ. Measurement of rapidly available glucose (RAG) in plant foods: a potential in vitro predictor of the glycaemic response. Br J Nutr. 1996 Mar;75(3):327-37.

· Feng R, Bowman LL, Lu Y, Leonard SS, Shi X, Jiang BH, Castranova V, Vallyathan V, Ding M. Blackberry extracts inhibit activating protein 1 activation and cell transformation by perturbing the mitogenic signaling pathway. Nutr Cancer. 2004;50(1):80-9.

· Fujioka K, Greenway F, Sheard J, Effects of grapefruit and grapefruit products on weight and metabolic syndrome. Oral Presentation, American Chemical Society 228th National Meeting, Philadelphia, August 24-25, 2004.

· Garrow JS, Scott PF, Heels S, et al. A study of 'starch blockers' in man using 13C-enriched starch as a tracer. Hum Nutr Clin Nutr 1983;37:301–5.

· Granfeldt Y, Drews A, Bjorck I. Arepas made from high amylose corn flour produce favorably low glucose and insulin responses in healthy humans. J Nutr. 1995 Mar;125(3):459-65.

· Higgins JA, Higbee DR, Donahoo WT, Brown IL, Bell ML, Bessesen DH. Resistant Starch consumption promotes lipid oxidation. Nutr Metab (Lond). 2004 Oct 6;1(1):8.

· Higgins JA. Resistant STARch: metabolic effects and potential health benefits. J AOAC Int. 2004 May-Jun;87(3):761-8. Review.

· Hollenbeck CB, Coulston AM, Quan R, et al. Effects of a commercial starch blocker preparation on carbohydrate digestion and absorption: in vivo and in vitro studies. Am J Clin Nutr 1983;38:498–503.

· Holt PR, Thea D, Yang MY, Kotler DP. Intestinal and metabolic responses to an alpha-glucosidase inhibitor in normal volunteers. Metabolism 1988;37:1163–70.

· Hongu, M et al. Na(+)-glucose Cotransporter Inhibitors as Antidiabetic Agents. II. Synthesis and Structure-activity Relationships of 4'-dehydroxyphlorizin derivatives. Chem. Pharm. Bull. (Tokyo) 1998. 46: 22-33.

· Kendall CW, Emam A, Augustin LS, Jenkins DJ. Resistant STARches and health. J AOAC Int. 2004 May-Jun;87(3):769-74. Review.

· Knekt, P et al. Flavonoid Intake and Risk of Chronic Diseases. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2002. 76: 560-568.

· Lankisch M, Layer P, Rizza RA, DiMagno EP. Acute postprandial gastrointestinal and metabolic effects of wheat amylase inhibitor (WAI) in normal, obese, and diabetic humans. Pancreas. 1998 Aug;17(2):176-81.

· Robertson MD, Currie JM, Morgan LM, Jewell DP, Frayn KN. Prior short-term consumption of resistant STARch enhances postprandial insulin sensitivity in healthy subjects. Diabetologia. 2003 May;46(5):659-65. Epub 2003 Apr 24.

· Rolls, Barbara & Barnett, Robert A. The Volumetrics Weight-Control Plan, Harper Torch, New York, 2003.

· Tiwary CM, Ward JA, Jackson BA. Effect of pectin on satiety in healthy US Army adults. J Am Coll Nutr. 1997 Oct;16(5):423-8. Udani J, Hardy M, Madsen DC. Blocking carbohydrate absorption and weight loss: a clinical trial using Phase 2 brand proprietary fractionated white bean extract. Altern Med Rev. 2004 Mar;9(1):63-9.

· Wang SY, Feng R, Bowman L, Penhallegon R, Ding M, Lu Y. Antioxidant activity in lingonberries (Vaccinium vitis-idaea L.) and its inhibitory effect on activator protein-1, nuclear factor-kappaB, and mitogen-activated protein kinases activation. J Agric Food Chem. 2005 Apr 20;53(8):3156-66.

· Wang SY, Feng R, Lu Y, Bowman L, Ding M. Inhibitory Effect on Activator Protein-1, Nuclear Factor-KappaB, and Cell Transformation by Extracts of Strawberries (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.). J Agric Food Chem. 2005 May 18;53(10):4187-4193.

Nuts and seeds

· Garcia-Lorda P, Megias Rangil I, Salas-Salvado J. Nut consumption, body weight and insulin resistance. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2003 Sep;57 Suppl 1:S8-11. Review.·Garcia-Lorda P, Megias Rangil I, Salas-Salvado J. Nut consumption, body weight and insulin resistance. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2003 Sep;57 Suppl 1:S8-11. Review.

· Kontush A, Spranger T, Reich A, Baum K, Beisiegel U. Lipophilic antioxidants in blood plasma as markers of atherosclerosis: the role of alpha-carotene and gamma-tocopherol. Atherosclerosis. 1999 Jun;144(1):117-22.·Kontush A, Spranger T, Reich A, Baum K, Beisiegel U. Lipophilic antioxidants in blood plasma as markers of atherosclerosis: the role of alpha-carotene and gamma-tocopherol. Atherosclerosis. 1999 Jun;144(1):117-22.

· Megias-Rangil I, Garcia-Lorda P, Torres-Moreno M, Bullo M, Salas-Salvado J. [Nutrient content and health effects of nuts] Arch Latinoam Nutr. 2004 Jun;54(2 Suppl 1):83-6. Spanish.·Megias-Rangil I, Garcia-Lorda P, Torres-Moreno M, Bullo M, Salas-Salvado J. [Nutrient content and health effects of nuts] Arch Latinoam Nutr. 2004 Jun;54(2 Suppl 1):83-6. Spanish.

· Qidwai W, Alim SR, Dhanani RH, et al. Use of folk remedies among patients in Karachi Pakistan. J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad. 2003 Apr;15(2):31-3.·Qidwai W, Alim SR, Dhanani RH, et al. Use of folk remedies among patients in Karachi Pakistan. J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad. 2003 Apr;15(2):31-3.

· Sabate J. Nut consumption and body weight. Am J Clin Nutr. 2003 Sep;78(3 Suppl):647S-650S. Review.·Sabate J. Nut consumption and body weight. Am J Clin Nutr. 2003 Sep;78(3 Suppl):647S-650S. Review.

· Takeuchi H, Mooi LY, Inagaki Y, He P. Hypoglycemic effect of a hot-water extract from defatted sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) seed on the blood glucose level in genetically diabetic KK-Ay mice. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2001 Oct;65(10):2318-21.·Takeuchi H, Mooi LY, Inagaki Y, He P. Hypoglycemic effect of a hot-water extract from defatted sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) seed on the blood glucose level in genetically diabetic KK-Ay mice. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2001 Oct;65(10):2318-21.

· Yamashita K, Nohara Y, Katayama K, Nami ki M. Sesame seed lignans and gamma-tocopherol act synergistically to produce vitamin E activity in rats. J Nutr. 1992;122(12):2440-6.·Yamashita K, Nohara Y, Katayama K, Nami ki M. Sesame seed lignans and gamma-tocopherol act synergistically to produce vitamin E activity in rats. J Nutr. 1992;122(12):2440-6.

Spices

· Arun N, Nalini N. Efficacy of turmeric on blood sugar and polyol pathway in diabetic albino rats. Plant Foods Hum Nutr. 2002 Winter;57(1):41-52.·Arun N, Nalini N. Efficacy of turmeric on blood sugar and polyol pathway in diabetic albino rats. Plant Foods Hum Nutr. 2002 Winter;57(1):41-52.

· Broca C, Breil V, Cruciani-Guglielmacci C, Manteghetti M, Rouault C, Derouet M, Rizkalla S, Pau B, Petit P, Ribes G, Ktorza A, Gross R, Reach G, Taouis M. Insulinotropic agent ID-1101 (4-hydroxyisoleucine) activates insulin signaling in rat. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2004 Sep;287(3):E463-71. Epub 2004 Apr 13.·Broca C, Breil V, Cruciani-Guglielmacci C, Manteghetti M, Rouault C, Derouet M, Rizkalla S, Pau B, Petit P, Ribes G, Ktorza A, Gross R, Reach G, Taouis M. Insulinotropic agent ID-1101 (4-hydroxyisoleucine) activates insulin signaling in rat. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2004 Sep;287(3):E463-71. Epub 2004 Apr 13.

· Broca C, Breil V, Cruciani-Guglielmacci C, Manteghetti M, Rouault C, Derouet M, Rizkalla S, Pau B, Petit P, Ribes G, Ktorza A, Gross R, Reach G, Taouis M. Insulinotropic agent ID-1101 (4-hydroxyisoleucine) activates insulin signaling in rat. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2004 Sep;287(3):E463-71. Epub 2004 Apr 13.·Broca C, Breil V, Cruciani-Guglielmacci C, Manteghetti M, Rouault C, Derouet M, Rizkalla S, Pau B, Petit P, Ribes G, Ktorza A, Gross R, Reach G, Taouis M. Insulinotropic agent ID-1101 (4-hydroxyisoleucine) activates insulin signaling in rat. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2004 Sep;287(3):E463-71. Epub 2004 Apr 13.

· Buiatti E, Palli D, Decarli A, et al. A case-control study of gastric cancer and diet in Italy. Int J Cancer 1989;44:611–6.·Buiatti E, Palli D, Decarli A, et al. A case-control study of gastric cancer and diet in Italy. Int J Cancer 1989;44:611–6.

· Chaiyata P, Puttadechakum S, Komindr S. Effect of chili pepper (Capsicum frutescens) ingestion on plasma glucose response and metabolic rate in Thai women. J Med Assoc Thai. 2003 Sep;86(9):854-60.·Chaiyata P, Puttadechakum S, Komindr S. Effect of chili pepper (Capsicum frutescens) ingestion on plasma glucose response and metabolic rate in Thai women. J Med Assoc Thai. 2003 Sep;86(9):854-60.

· Devi BA, Kamalakkannan N, Prince PS. Supplementation of fenugreek leaves to diabetic rats. Effect on carbohydrate metabolic enzymes in diabetic liver and kidney. Phytother Res. 2003 Dec;17(10):1231-3.·Devi BA, Kamalakkannan N, Prince PS. Supplementation of fenugreek leaves to diabetic rats. Effect on carbohydrate metabolic enzymes in diabetic liver and kidney. Phytother Res. 2003 Dec;17(10):1231-3.

· Dickerson C. Neuropeptide regulation of proinflammatory cytokine responses. J Leukoc Biol 1998 May;63(5):602-5.·Dickerson C. Neuropeptide regulation of proinflammatory cytokine responses. J Leukoc Biol 1998 May;63(5):602-5.

· Edwards SJ, et al. Spicy meal disturbs sleep: an effect of thermoregulation? Int J Psychophysiol 1992 Sep;13(2):97-100.·Edwards SJ, et al. Spicy meal disturbs sleep: an effect of thermoregulation? Int J Psychophysiol 1992 Sep;13(2):97-100.

· Khan A, Safdar M, Ali Khan MM, Khattak KN, Anderson RA. Cinnamon improves glucose and lipids of people with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2003 Dec;26(12):3215-8.·Khan A, Safdar M, Ali Khan MM, Khattak KN, Anderson RA. Cinnamon improves glucose and lipids of people with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2003 Dec;26(12):3215-8.

· Kobayashi A. Capsaicin activates heat loss and heat production simultaneously and independently in rats. Am J Physiol 1998 Jul;275(1 Pt 2):R92-8.Nelson AG. The effect of capsaicin on the thermal and metabolic responses of men exposed to 38 degrees C for 120 minutes. Wilderness Environ Med 2000 Fall;11(3):152-6.·Kobayashi A. Capsaicin activates heat loss and heat production simultaneously and independently in rats. Am J Physiol 1998 Jul;275(1 Pt 2):R92-8.Nelson AG. The effect of capsaicin on the thermal and metabolic responses of men exposed to 38 degrees C for 120 minutes. Wilderness Environ Med 2000 Fall;11(3):152-6.

· Kwak JY. A capsaicin-receptor antagonist, capsazepine, reduces inflammation-induced hyperalgesic responses in the rat: evidence for an endogenous capsaicin-like substance. Neuroscience 1998 Sep;86(2):619-26.·Kwak JY. A capsaicin-receptor antagonist, capsazepine, reduces inflammation-induced hyperalgesic responses in the rat: evidence for an endogenous capsaicin-like substance. Neuroscience 1998 Sep;86(2):619-26.

· Lim K, Yoshioka M, Kikuzato S, Kiyonaga A, Tanaka H, Shindo M, Suzuki M. Dietary red pepper ingestion increases carbohydrate oxidation at rest and during exercise in runners. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1997 Mar;29(3):355-61.·Lim K, Yoshioka M, Kikuzato S, Kiyonaga A, Tanaka H, Shindo M, Suzuki M. Dietary red pepper ingestion increases carbohydrate oxidation at rest and during exercise in runners. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1997 Mar;29(3):355-61.

· Lopez-Carrillo L, Avila M, Dubrow R. Chili pepper consumption and gastric cancer in Mexico: A case-control study. Amer J Epidem 1994;139:263–71.·Lopez-Carrillo L, Avila M, Dubrow R. Chili pepper consumption and gastric cancer in Mexico: A case-control study. Amer J Epidem 1994;139:263–71.

· Matsumoto T, Miyawaki C, Ue H, Yuasa T, Miyatsuji A, Moritani T. Effects of capsaicin-containing yellow curry sauce on sympathetic nervous system activity and diet-induced thermogenesis in lean and obese young women. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). 2000 Dec;46(6):309-15.·Matsumoto T, Miyawaki C, Ue H, Yuasa T, Miyatsuji A, Moritani T. Effects of capsaicin-containing yellow curry sauce on sympathetic nervous system activity and diet-induced thermogenesis in lean and obese young women. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). 2000 Dec;46(6):309-15.

· Mitchell JA. Role of nitric oxide in the dilator actions of capsaicin-sensitive nerves in the rabbit coronary circulation. Neuropeptides 1997 Aug;31(4):333-8.·Mitchell JA. Role of nitric oxide in the dilator actions of capsaicin-sensitive nerves in the rabbit coronary circulation. Neuropeptides 1997 Aug;31(4):333-8.

· Nishiyama T, Mae T, Kishida H, Tsukagawa M, Mimaki Y, Kuroda M, Sashida Y, Takahashi K, Kawada T, Nakagawa K, Kitahara M. Curcuminoids and sesquiterpenoids in turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) suppress an increase in blood glucose level in type 2 diabetic KK-Ay mice. J Agric Food Chem. 2005 Feb 23;53(4):959-63.·Nishiyama T, Mae T, Kishida H, Tsukagawa M, Mimaki Y, Kuroda M, Sashida Y, Takahashi K, Kawada T, Nakagawa K, Kitahara M. Curcuminoids and sesquiterpenoids in turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) suppress an increase in blood glucose level in type 2 diabetic KK-Ay mice. J Agric Food Chem. 2005 Feb 23;53(4):959-63.

· Ohnuki K, Niwa S, Maeda S, Inoue N, Yazawa S, Fushiki T. CH-19 sweet, a non-pungent cultivar of red pepper, increased body temperature and oxygen consumption in humans. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2001 Sep;65(9):2033-6.·Ohnuki K, Niwa S, Maeda S, Inoue N, Yazawa S, Fushiki T. CH-19 sweet, a non-pungent cultivar of red pepper, increased body temperature and oxygen consumption in humans. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2001 Sep;65(9):2033-6.

· Pacach AS. The Effect of Capsaicin on Orally-Measured Body Temperature. www.usc.edu/CSSF/History/2004/Projects/J1421.pdf. Accessed May 15, 2005.·Pacach AS. The Effect of Capsaicin on Orally-Measured Body Temperature. www.usc.edu/CSSF/History/2004/Projects/J1421.pdf. Accessed May 15, 2005.

· Qin B, Nagasaki M, Ren M, Bajotto G, Oshida Y, Sato Y. Cinnamon extract prevents the insulin resistance induced by a high-fructose diet. Horm Metab Res. 2004 Feb;36(2):119-25.·Qin B, Nagasaki M, Ren M, Bajotto G, Oshida Y, Sato Y. Cinnamon extract prevents the insulin resistance induced by a high-fructose diet. Horm Metab Res. 2004 Feb;36(2):119-25.

· Qin B, Nagasaki M, Ren M, Bajotto G, Oshida Y, Sato Y. Cinnamon extract (traditional herb) potentiates in vivo insulin-regulated glucose utilization via enhancing insulin signaling in rats. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2003 Dec;62(3):139-48.·Qin B, Nagasaki M, Ren M, Bajotto G, Oshida Y, Sato Y. Cinnamon extract (traditional herb) potentiates in vivo insulin-regulated glucose utilization via enhancing insulin signaling in rats. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2003 Dec;62(3):139-48.

· Surh YJ, Lee SS. Capsaicin in hot chili pepper: Carcinogen, co-carcinogen or anticarcinogen? Food Chem Toxic 1996;34:313–6.·Surh YJ, Lee SS. Capsaicin in hot chili pepper: Carcinogen, co-carcinogen or anticarcinogen? Food Chem Toxic 1996;34:313–6.

· Thakran S, Siddiqui MR, Baquer NZ. Trigonella foenum graecum seed powder protects against histopathological abnormalities in tissues of diabetic rats. Mol Cell Biochem. 2004 Nov;266(1-2):151-9.·Thakran S, Siddiqui MR, Baquer NZ. Trigonella foenum graecum seed powder protects against histopathological abnormalities in tissues of diabetic rats. Mol Cell Biochem. 2004 Nov;266(1-2):151-9.

· Yoshioka M, Doucet E, Drapeau V, Dionne I, Tremblay A. Combined effects of red pepper and caffeine consumption on 24 h energy balance in subjects given free access to foods. Br J Nutr. 2001 Feb;85(2):203-11.·Yoshioka M, Doucet E, Drapeau V, Dionne I, Tremblay A. Combined effects of red pepper and caffeine consumption on 24 h energy balance in subjects given free access to foods. Br J Nutr. 2001 Feb;85(2):203-11.

· Yoshioka M, Imanaga M, Ueyama H, Yamane M, Kubo Y, Boivin A, St-Amand J, Tanaka H, Kiyonaga A. Maximum tolerable dose of red pepper decreases fat intake independently of spicy sensation in the mouth. Br J Nutr. 2004 Jun;91(6):991-5.·Yoshioka M, Imanaga M, Ueyama H, Yamane M, Kubo Y, Boivin A, St-Amand J, Tanaka H, Kiyonaga A. Maximum tolerable dose of red pepper decreases fat intake independently of spicy sensation in the mouth. Br J Nutr. 2004 Jun;91(6):991-5.

· Yoshioka M, Lim K, Kikuzato S, Kiyonaga A, Tanaka H, Shindo M, Suzuki M. Effects of red-pepper diet on the energy metabolism in men. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). 1995 Dec;41(6):647-56.·Yoshioka M, Lim K, Kikuzato S, Kiyonaga A, Tanaka H, Shindo M, Suzuki M. Effects of red-pepper diet on the energy metabolism in men. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). 1995 Dec;41(6):647-56.

· Yoshioka M, St-Pierre S, Drapeau V, Dionne I, Doucet E, Suzuki M, Tremblay A. Effects of red pepper on appetite and energy intake. Br J Nutr. 1999 Aug;82(2):115-23.·Yoshioka M, St-Pierre S, Drapeau V, Dionne I, Doucet E, Suzuki M, Tremblay A. Effects of red pepper on appetite and energy intake. Br J Nutr. 1999 Aug;82(2):115-23.

· Yoshioka M, St-Pierre S, Suzuki M, Tremblay A. Effects of red pepper added to high-fat and high-carbohydrate meals on energy metabolism and substrate utilization in Japanese women. Br J Nutr. 1998 Dec;80(6):503-10.·Yoshioka M, St-Pierre S, Suzuki M, Tremblay A. Effects of red pepper added to high-fat and high-carbohydrate meals on energy metabolism and substrate utilization in Japanese women. Br J Nutr. 1998 Dec;80(6):503-10.

Tea

· Cooper R, Morre DJ, Morre DM. Medicinal benefits of green tea: Part I. Review of noncancer health benefits. J Altern Complement Med. 2005 Jun;11(3):521-8. Review.·Cooper R, Morre DJ, Morre DM. Medicinal benefits of green tea: Part I. Review of noncancer health benefits. J Altern Complement Med. 2005 Jun;11(3):521-8. Review.

· Cooper R, Morre DJ, Morre DM. Medicinal benefits of green tea: part II. review of anticancer properties. J Altern Complement Med. 2005 Aug;11(4):639-52.·Cooper R, Morre DJ, Morre DM. Medicinal benefits of green tea: part II. review of anticancer properties. J Altern Complement Med. 2005 Aug;11(4):639-52.

· Hernandez Figueroa TT, Rodriguez-Rodriguez E, Sanchez-Muniz FJ. [The green tea, a good choice for cardiovascular disease prevention?] Arch Latinoam Nutr. 2004 Dec;54(4):380-94. Spanish.·Hernandez Figueroa TT, Rodriguez-Rodriguez E, Sanchez-Muniz FJ. [The green tea, a good choice for cardiovascular disease prevention?] Arch Latinoam Nutr. 2004 Dec;54(4):380-94. Spanish.

Vegetables

· Kant AK, Graubard BI. Energy density of diets reported by American adults: association with food group intake, nutrient intake, and body weight. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2005 May 17; [Epub ahead of print]·Kant AK, Graubard BI. Energy density of diets reported by American adults: association with food group intake, nutrient intake, and body weight. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2005 May 17; [Epub ahead of print]

· Rolls BJ, Ello-Martin JA, Tohill BC. What can intervention studies tell us about the relationship between fruit and vegetable consumption and weight management? Nutr Rev. 2004 Jan;62(1):1-17. Review.·Rolls BJ, Ello-Martin JA, Tohill BC. What can intervention studies tell us about the relationship between fruit and vegetable consumption and weight management? Nutr Rev. 2004 Jan;62(1):1-17. Review.

· Arts IC, Hollman PC. Polyphenols and disease risk in epidemiologic studies. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005 Jan;81(1 Suppl):317S-325S. Review.·Arts IC, Hollman PC. Polyphenols and disease risk in epidemiologic studies. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005 Jan;81(1 Suppl):317S-325S. Review.

· Bianchini F, Vainio H. Isothiocyanates in cancer prevention. Drug Metab Rev. 2004 Oct;36(3-4):655-67. Review.·Bianchini F, Vainio H. Isothiocyanates in cancer prevention. Drug Metab Rev. 2004 Oct;36(3-4):655-67. Review.

· Brandi G, Schiavano GF, Zaffaroni N, De Marco C, Paiardini M, Cervasi B, Magnani M. Mechanisms of Action and Antiproliferative Properties of Brassica oleracea Juice in Human Breast Cancer Cell Lines. J Nutr. 2005 Jun;135(6):1503-9.·Brandi G, Schiavano GF, Zaffaroni N, De Marco C, Paiardini M, Cervasi B, Magnani M. Mechanisms of Action and Antiproliferative Properties of Brassica oleracea Juice in Human Breast Cancer Cell Lines. J Nutr. 2005 Jun;135(6):1503-9.

· Campbell JK, Canene-Adams K, Lindshield BL, Boileau TW, Clinton SK, Erdman JW Jr. Tomato phytochemicals and prostate cancer risk. J Nutr. 2004 Dec;134(12 Suppl):3486S-3492S. Review.·Campbell JK, Canene-Adams K, Lindshield BL, Boileau TW, Clinton SK, Erdman JW Jr. Tomato phytochemicals and prostate cancer risk. J Nutr. 2004 Dec;134(12 Suppl):3486S-3492S. Review.

· Fahey JW, Zhang Y, Talalay P. Broccoli sprouts: an exceptionally rich source of inducers of enzymes that protect against chemical carcinogens. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997 Sep 16;94(19):10367-72.·Fahey JW, Zhang Y, Talalay P. Broccoli sprouts: an exceptionally rich source of inducers of enzymes that protect against chemical carcinogens. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997 Sep 16;94(19):10367-72.

· FJ Frances. Pigments and other colorants. In: Food Chemistry, 2nd edition,OR Fennema (ed). Marcel Dekker, Inc, New York, NY, 1985.·FJ Frances. Pigments and other colorants. In: Food Chemistry, 2nd edition,OR Fennema (ed). Marcel Dekker, Inc, New York, NY, 1985.

· Flagg EW, Coates RJ, Greenberg RS. Epidemiologic studies of antioxidants and cancer in humans. J Am Coll Nutr. 1995;14:419–427.·Flagg EW, Coates RJ, Greenberg RS. Epidemiologic studies of antioxidants and cancer in humans. J Am Coll Nutr. 1995;14:419–427.

· Giovannuccci E. Tomatoes, tomato-based products, lycopene, and cancer: review of the epidemiologic literature. J Natl Cancer Inst 1999;91:317-31.·Giovannuccci E. Tomatoes, tomato-based products, lycopene, and cancer: review of the epidemiologic literature. J Natl Cancer Inst 1999;91:317-31.

· Goldberg J, Flowerdew G, Smith E, et al. Factors associated with age-related macular degeneration. An analysis of data from the first National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Am J Epidemiol. 1988;128:700–710.·Goldberg J, Flowerdew G, Smith E, et al. Factors associated with age-related macular degeneration. An analysis of data from the first National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Am J Epidemiol. 1988;128:700–710.

· Hackett, A.M. In: Plant flavonoids in biology and medicine: biochemical pharmacological and structure activity relationships. Cody V, Middleton EJ and Harborne JB, editors. Liss 1986, 177-94, New York.·Hackett, A.M. In: Plant flavonoids in biology and medicine: biochemical pharmacological and structure activity relationships. Cody V, Middleton EJ and Harborne JB, editors. Liss 1986, 177-94, New York.

· Han B, Jaurequi J, Tang BW, Nimni ME. Proanthocyanidin: a natural crosslinking reagent for stabilizing collagen matrices. J Biomed Mater Res. 2003 Apr 1;65A(1):118-24.·Han B, Jaurequi J, Tang BW, Nimni ME. Proanthocyanidin: a natural crosslinking reagent for stabilizing collagen matrices. J Biomed Mater Res. 2003 Apr 1;65A(1):118-24.

· Holick CN, Michaud DS, Stolzenberg-Solomon R, Mayne ST, Pietinen P, Taylor PR, Virtamo J, Albanes D. Dietary carotenoids, serum beta-carotene, and retinol and risk of lung cancer in the alpha-tocopherol, beta-carotene cohort study. Am J Epidemiol. 2002 Sep 15;156(6):536-47.·Holick CN, Michaud DS, Stolzenberg-Solomon R, Mayne ST, Pietinen P, Taylor PR, Virtamo J, Albanes D. Dietary carotenoids, serum beta-carotene, and retinol and risk of lung cancer in the alpha-tocopherol, beta-carotene cohort study. Am J Epidemiol. 2002 Sep 15;156(6):536-47.

· Hou DX, Kai K, Li JJ, Lin S, Terahara N, Wakamatsu M, Fujii M, Young MR, Colburn N. Anthocyanidins inhibit activator protein 1 activity and cell transformation: structure-activity relationship and molecular mechanisms. Carcinogenesis. 2004 Jan;25(1):29-36. Epub 2003 Sep 26.·Hou DX, Kai K, Li JJ, Lin S, Terahara N, Wakamatsu M, Fujii M, Young MR, Colburn N. Anthocyanidins inhibit activator protein 1 activity and cell transformation: structure-activity relationship and molecular mechanisms. Carcinogenesis. 2004 Jan;25(1):29-36. Epub 2003 Sep 26.

· Hou DX. Potential mechanisms of cancer chemoprevention by anthocyanins. Curr Mol Med. 2003 Mar;3(2):149-59. Review.·Hou DX. Potential mechanisms of cancer chemoprevention by anthocyanins. Curr Mol Med. 2003 Mar;3(2):149-59. Review.

· Ito Y, Gajalakshmi KC, Sasaki R, Suzuki K, Shanta V. A study on serum carotenoid levels in breast cancer patients of Indian women in Chennai (Madras), India. J Epidemiol. 1999 Nov;9(5):306-14.·Ito Y, Gajalakshmi KC, Sasaki R, Suzuki K, Shanta V. A study on serum carotenoid levels in breast cancer patients of Indian women in Chennai (Madras), India. J Epidemiol. 1999 Nov;9(5):306-14.

· Keck AS, Finley JW. Cruciferous vegetables: cancer protective mechanisms of glucosinolate hydrolysis products and selenium. Integr Cancer Ther. 2004 Mar;3(1):5-12.·Keck AS, Finley JW. Cruciferous vegetables: cancer protective mechanisms of glucosinolate hydrolysis products and selenium. Integr Cancer Ther. 2004 Mar;3(1):5-12.

· Krinsky NI, Landrum JT, Bone RA. Biologic mechanisms of the protective role of lutein and zeaxanthin in the eye. Annu Rev Nutr. 2003;23:171-201. Epub 2003 Feb 27. Review.·Krinsky NI, Landrum JT, Bone RA. Biologic mechanisms of the protective role of lutein and zeaxanthin in the eye. Annu Rev Nutr. 2003;23:171-201. Epub 2003 Feb 27. Review.

· Krinsky NI. Micronutrients and their influence on mutagenicity and malignant transformation. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1993 May 28;686:229-42. Review.·Krinsky NI. Micronutrients and their influence on mutagenicity and malignant transformation. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1993 May 28;686:229-42. Review.

· Kris-Etherton PM, Hecker KD, Bonanome A, Coval SM, Binkoski AE, Hilpert KF, Griel AE, Etherton TD. Bioactive compounds in foods: their role in the prevention of cardiovascular disease and cancer. Am J Med. 2002 Dec 30;113 Suppl 9B:71S-88S. Review.·Kris-Etherton PM, Hecker KD, Bonanome A, Coval SM, Binkoski AE, Hilpert KF, Griel AE, Etherton TD. Bioactive compounds in foods: their role in the prevention of cardiovascular disease and cancer. Am J Med. 2002 Dec 30;113 Suppl 9B:71S-88S. Review.

· La Vecchia C, Tavani A. Fruit and vegetables, and human cancer. Eur J Cancer Prev. 1998 Feb;7(1):3-8. Review.·La Vecchia C, Tavani A. Fruit and vegetables, and human cancer. Eur J Cancer Prev. 1998 Feb;7(1):3-8. Review.

· Lamson DW, Brignall MS. Antioxidants and cancer, part 3: quercetin. Altern Med Rev. 2000 Jun;5(3):196-208. Review.·Lamson DW, Brignall MS. Antioxidants and cancer, part 3: quercetin. Altern Med Rev. 2000 Jun;5(3):196-208. Review.

· Lee EH, Faulhaber D, Hanson KM, Ding W, Peters S, Kodali S, Granstein RD. Dietary lutein reduces ultraviolet radiation-induced inflammation and immunosuppression. J Invest Dermatol. 2004 Feb;122(2):510-7.·Lee EH, Faulhaber D, Hanson KM, Ding W, Peters S, Kodali S, Granstein RD. Dietary lutein reduces ultraviolet radiation-induced inflammation and immunosuppression. J Invest Dermatol. 2004 Feb;122(2):510-7.

· Liu RH. Potential synergy of phytochemicals in cancer prevention: mechanism of action. J Nutr. 2004 Dec;134(12 Suppl):3479S-3485S. Review.·Liu RH. Potential synergy of phytochemicals in cancer prevention: mechanism of action. J Nutr. 2004 Dec;134(12 Suppl):3479S-3485S. Review.

· Mazza G; Miniati E. Small fruits. In Anthocyanins in Fruits, Vegetables, and Grains; 1993; pp 85-130. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.·Mazza G; Miniati E. Small fruits. In Anthocyanins in Fruits, Vegetables, and Grains; 1993; pp 85-130. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.

· McBride J. High-ORAC foods may slow aging. USDA Agricultural Research Service Web Site. http://www.ars.usda.gov/is/pr/1999/990208.htm·McBride J. High-ORAC foods may slow aging. USDA Agricultural Research Service Web Site. http://www.ars.usda.gov/is/pr/1999/990208.htm

· Micozzi MS, Beecher GR, Taylor PR, Khachik F. Carotenoid analyses of selected raw and cooked foods associated with a lower risk for cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1990 Feb 21;82(4):282-5. Erratum in: J Natl Cancer Inst 1990 Apr 18;82(8):715.·Micozzi MS, Beecher GR, Taylor PR, Khachik F. Carotenoid analyses of selected raw and cooked foods associated with a lower risk for cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1990 Feb 21;82(4):282-5. Erratum in: J Natl Cancer Inst 1990 Apr 18;82(8):715.

· Moeller SM, Jacques PF, Blumberg JB. The potential role of dietary xanthophylls in cataract and age-related macular degeneration. J Am Coll Nutr. 2000 Oct;19(5 Suppl):522S-527S. Review.·Moeller SM, Jacques PF, Blumberg JB. The potential role of dietary xanthophylls in cataract and age-related macular degeneration. J Am Coll Nutr. 2000 Oct;19(5 Suppl):522S-527S. Review.

· Robert AM, Tixier JM, Robert L, Legeais JM, Renard G. Effect of procyanidolic oligomers on the permeability of the blood-brain barrier. Pathol Biol (Paris). 2001 May;49(4):298-304.·Robert AM, Tixier JM, Robert L, Legeais JM, Renard G. Effect of procyanidolic oligomers on the permeability of the blood-brain barrier. Pathol Biol (Paris). 2001 May;49(4):298-304.

· Rock CL, Saxe GA, Ruffin MT IV, et al. Carotenoids, vitamin A, and estrogen receptor status in breast cancer. Nutr Cancer. 1996;25:281–296.·Rock CL, Saxe GA, Ruffin MT IV, et al. Carotenoids, vitamin A, and estrogen receptor status in breast cancer. Nutr Cancer. 1996;25:281–296.

· Scalbert A, Johnson IT, Saltmarsh M. Polyphenols: antioxidants and beyond. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005 Jan;81(1 Suppl):215S-217S. Review.·Scalbert A, Johnson IT, Saltmarsh M. Polyphenols: antioxidants and beyond. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005 Jan;81(1 Suppl):215S-217S. Review.

· Schmidt K. Antioxidant vitamins and beta-carotene: effects on immunocompetence. Am J Clin Nutr. 1991 Jan;53(1 Suppl):383S-385S.·Schmidt K. Antioxidant vitamins and beta-carotene: effects on immunocompetence. Am J Clin Nutr. 1991 Jan;53(1 Suppl):383S-385S.

· Seddon JM, Ajani UA, Sperduto RD, et al. Dietary carotenoids, vitamins A, C, and E, and advanced age-related macular degeneration. Eye Disease Case-Control Study Group. JAMA. 1994;272:1413–1420.·Seddon JM, Ajani UA, Sperduto RD, et al. Dietary carotenoids, vitamins A, C, and E, and advanced age-related macular degeneration. Eye Disease Case-Control Study Group. JAMA. 1994;272:1413–1420.

· Seeram NP, Zhang Y, Nair MG. Inhibition of proliferation of human cancer cells and cyclooxygenase enzymes by anthocyanidins and catechins. Nutr Cancer. 2003;46(1):101-6.·Seeram NP, Zhang Y, Nair MG. Inhibition of proliferation of human cancer cells and cyclooxygenase enzymes by anthocyanidins and catechins. Nutr Cancer. 2003;46(1):101-6.

· Shapiro TA, Fahey JW, Wade KL, Stephenson KK, Talalay P. Chemoprotective glucosinolates and isothiocyanates of broccoli sprouts: metabolism and excretion in humans. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2001 May;10(5):501-8.·Shapiro TA, Fahey JW, Wade KL, Stephenson KK, Talalay P. Chemoprotective glucosinolates and isothiocyanates of broccoli sprouts: metabolism and excretion in humans. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2001 May;10(5):501-8.

· Spencer JP, Schroeter H, Rechner AR, Rice-Evans C. Bioavailability of flavan-3-ols and procyanidins: gastrointestinal tract influences and their relevance to bioactive forms in vivo. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2001 Dec;3(6):1023-39. Review.·Spencer JP, Schroeter H, Rechner AR, Rice-Evans C. Bioavailability of flavan-3-ols and procyanidins: gastrointestinal tract influences and their relevance to bioactive forms in vivo. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2001 Dec;3(6):1023-39. Review.

· Steinmetz KA, Potter JD. Vegetables, fruit, and cancer prevention: a review. J Am Diet Assoc. 1996 Oct;96(10):1027-39. Review.·Steinmetz KA, Potter JD. Vegetables, fruit, and cancer prevention: a review. J Am Diet Assoc. 1996 Oct;96(10):1027-39. Review.

· Tan WF, Lin LP, Li MH, Zhang YX, Tong YG, Xiao D, Ding J. Quercetin, a dietary-derived flavonoid, possesses antiangiogenic potential. Eur J Pharmacol. 2003 Jan 17;459(2-3):255-62.·Tan WF, Lin LP, Li MH, Zhang YX, Tong YG, Xiao D, Ding J. Quercetin, a dietary-derived flavonoid, possesses antiangiogenic potential. Eur J Pharmacol. 2003 Jan 17;459(2-3):255-62.

· The Polyphenol Flavonoids Content and Anti-Oxidant Activiites of Various Juices: A Comparative Study- The Lipid Research Laboratory, Technion Faculty of Medicine, The Rappaport Family Institute for Research in the Medical Sciences and Rambam Medical Center, Haifa, Israel.·The Polyphenol Flavonoids Content and Anti-Oxidant Activiites of Various Juices: A Comparative Study- The Lipid Research Laboratory, Technion Faculty of Medicine, The Rappaport Family Institute for Research in the Medical Sciences and Rambam Medical Center, Haifa, Israel.

· Toniolo P, Van Kappel AL, Akhmedkhanov A, Ferrari P, Kato I, Shore RE, Riboli E. Serum carotenoids and breast cancer. Am J Epidemiol. 2001 Jun 15;153(12):1142-7.·Toniolo P, Van Kappel AL, Akhmedkhanov A, Ferrari P, Kato I, Shore RE, Riboli E. Serum carotenoids and breast cancer. Am J Epidemiol. 2001 Jun 15;153(12):1142-7.

· van Doorn HE, van der Kruk GC, van Holst GJ. Large scale determination of glucosinolates in brussels sprouts samples after degradation of endogenous glucose. J Agric Food Chem. 1999 Mar;47(3):1029-34.·van Doorn HE, van der Kruk GC, van Holst GJ. Large scale determination of glucosinolates in brussels sprouts samples after degradation of endogenous glucose. J Agric Food Chem. 1999 Mar;47(3):1029-34.

· Vita JA. Polyphenols and cardiovascular disease: effects on endothelial and platelet function. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005 Jan;81(1 Suppl):292S-297S. Review.·Vita JA. Polyphenols and cardiovascular disease: effects on endothelial and platelet function. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005 Jan;81(1 Suppl):292S-297S. Review.

· Vitale S, West S, Hallfrish J, et al. Plasma antioxidants and risk of cortical and nuclear cataract. Epidemiology. 1993;4:195–203.·Vitale S, West S, Hallfrish J, et al. Plasma antioxidants and risk of cortical and nuclear cataract. Epidemiology. 1993;4:195–203.

· Wang H, Cao G, Prior RL. Total antioxidant capacity of fruits. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 1996;44(3):701-705.·Wang H, Cao G, Prior RL. Total antioxidant capacity of fruits. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 1996;44(3):701-705.

· Yao LH, Jiang YM, Shi J, Tomas-Barberan FA, Datta N, Singanusong R, Chen SS. Flavonoids in food and their health benefits. Plant Foods Hum Nutr. 2004 Summer;59(3):113-22. Review.·Yao LH, Jiang YM, Shi J, Tomas-Barberan FA, Datta N, Singanusong R, Chen SS. Flavonoids in food and their health benefits. Plant Foods Hum Nutr. 2004 Summer;59(3):113-22. Review.

· Zhang LX et al. Carotenoids enhance hap junctional communication and inhibit lipid peroxidation in C3H/10T1/2 cells: Relationship to their cancer chemopreventive action. Carcinogenesis 12:2109-2114 (1991).·Zhang LX et al. Carotenoids enhance hap junctional communication and inhibit lipid peroxidation in C3H/10T1/2 cells: Relationship to their cancer chemopreventive action. Carcinogenesis 12:2109-2114 (1991).

· Ziegler RG. Vegetables, fruits, and carotenoids and the risk of cancer. Am J Clin Nutr. 1991 Jan;53(1 Suppl):251S-259S. Review.·Ziegler RG. Vegetables, fruits, and carotenoids and the risk of cancer. Am J Clin Nutr. 1991 Jan;53(1 Suppl):251S-259S. Review.

· Hensrud DD. Diet and obesity. Curr Opin Gastroenterol. 2004 Mar;20(2):119-24.·Hensrud DD. Diet and obesity. Curr Opin Gastroenterol. 2004 Mar;20(2):119-24.

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Whole grains

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· Adom KK, Sorrells ME, Liu RH. Phytochemical profiles and antioxidant activity of wheat varieties. J Agric Food Chem. 2003 Dec 17;51(26):7825-34.·Adom KK, Sorrells ME, Liu RH. Phytochemical profiles and antioxidant activity of wheat varieties. J Agric Food Chem. 2003 Dec 17;51(26):7825-34.

· Adom KK, Sorrells ME, Liu RH. Phytochemicals and antioxidant activity of milled fractions of different wheat varieties. J Agric Food Chem. 2005 Mar 23;53(6):2297-306.·Adom KK, Sorrells ME, Liu RH. Phytochemicals and antioxidant activity of milled fractions of different wheat varieties. J Agric Food Chem. 2005 Mar 23;53(6):2297-306.

· Bazzano LA, He J, Ogden LG, Loria CM, Whelton PK. Dietary fiber intake and reduced risk of coronary heart disease in US men and women: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey I Epidemiologic Follow-up Study. Arch Intern Med. 2003 Sep 8;163(16):1897-904.·Bazzano LA, He J, Ogden LG, Loria CM, Whelton PK. Dietary fiber intake and reduced risk of coronary heart disease in US men and women: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey I Epidemiologic Follow-up Study. Arch Intern Med. 2003 Sep 8;163(16):1897-904.

· Bhathena SJ, Velasquez MT. Beneficial role of dietary phytoestrogens in obesity and diabetes. Am J Clin Nutr. 2002 Dec;76(6):1191-201. Review.·Bhathena SJ, Velasquez MT. Beneficial role of dietary phytoestrogens in obesity and diabetes. Am J Clin Nutr. 2002 Dec;76(6):1191-201. Review.

· Chen CY, Milbury PE, Kwak HK, Collins FW, Samuel P, Blumberg JB. Avenanthramides phenolic acids from oats are bioavailable and act synergistically with vitamin C to enhance hamster and human LDL resistance to oxidation. J Nutr. 2004 Jun;134(6):1459-66.·Chen CY, Milbury PE, Kwak HK, Collins FW, Samuel P, Blumberg JB. Avenanthramides phenolic acids from oats are bioavailable and act synergistically with vitamin C to enhance hamster and human LDL resistance to oxidation. J Nutr. 2004 Jun;134(6):1459-66.

· Delaney B, Nicolosi RJ, Wilson TA et al. Beta-glucan fractions from barley and oats are similarly antiatherogenic in hypercholesterolemic Syrian golden hamsters. J Nutr; 2003 Feb 133(2):468-75.·Delaney B, Nicolosi RJ, Wilson TA et al. Beta-glucan fractions from barley and oats are similarly antiatherogenic in hypercholesterolemic Syrian golden hamsters. J Nutr; 2003 Feb 133(2):468-75.

· Foster-Powell K, Holt SH, Brand-Miller JC. International table of glycemic index and glycemic load values: 2002. Am J Clin Nutr. 2002 Jul;76(1):5-56.·Foster-Powell K, Holt SH, Brand-Miller JC. International table of glycemic index and glycemic load values: 2002. Am J Clin Nutr. 2002 Jul;76(1):5-56.

· Jacobs DR Jr, Pereira MA, Stumpf K, Pins JJ, Adlercreutz H. Whole grain food intake elevates serum enterolactone. Br J Nutr. 2002 Aug;88(2):111-6.·Jacobs DR Jr, Pereira MA, Stumpf K, Pins JJ, Adlercreutz H. Whole grain food intake elevates serum enterolactone. Br J Nutr. 2002 Aug;88(2):111-6.

· Jayagopal V, Albertazzi P, Kilpatrick ES, Howarth EM, Jennings PE, Hepburn DA, Atkin SL. Beneficial effects of soy phytoestrogen intake in postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2002 Oct;25(10):1709-14.·Jayagopal V, Albertazzi P, Kilpatrick ES, Howarth EM, Jennings PE, Hepburn DA, Atkin SL. Beneficial effects of soy phytoestrogen intake in postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2002 Oct;25(10):1709-14.

· Jenkins AL, Jenkins DJ, Zdravkovic U, Wursch P, Vuksan V. Depression of the glycemic index by high levels of beta-glucan fiber in two functional foods tested in type 2 diabetes. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2002 Jul;56(7):622-8.·Jenkins AL, Jenkins DJ, Zdravkovic U, Wursch P, Vuksan V. Depression of the glycemic index by high levels of beta-glucan fiber in two functional foods tested in type 2 diabetes. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2002 Jul;56(7):622-8.

· Koh-Banerjee P, Franz M, Sampson L, Liu S, Jacobs DR Jr, Spiegelman D, Willett W, Rimm E. Changes in whole-grain, bran, and cereal fiber consumption in relation to 8-y weight gain among men. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004 Nov;80(5):1237-45.·Koh-Banerjee P, Franz M, Sampson L, Liu S, Jacobs DR Jr, Spiegelman D, Willett W, Rimm E. Changes in whole-grain, bran, and cereal fiber consumption in relation to 8-y weight gain among men. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004 Nov;80(5):1237-45.

· Liese AD, Roach AK, Sparks KC, Marquart L, D'Agostino RB Jr, Mayer-Davis EJ. Whole-grain intake and insulin sensitivity: the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2003 Nov;78(5):965-71.·Liese AD, Roach AK, Sparks KC, Marquart L, D'Agostino RB Jr, Mayer-Davis EJ. Whole-grain intake and insulin sensitivity: the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2003 Nov;78(5):965-71.

· Liu L, Zubik L, Collins FW, Marko M, Meydani M. The antiatherogenic potential of oat phenolic compounds. Atherosclerosis. 2004 Jul;175(1):39-49.·Liu L, Zubik L, Collins FW, Marko M, Meydani M. The antiatherogenic potential of oat phenolic compounds. Atherosclerosis. 2004 Jul;175(1):39-49.

· Liu S, Willett WC, Manson JE, Hu FB, Rosner B, Colditz G. Relation between changes in intakes of dietary fiber and grain products and changes in weight and development of obesity among middle-aged women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2003 Nov;78(5):920-7.·Liu S, Willett WC, Manson JE, Hu FB, Rosner B, Colditz G. Relation between changes in intakes of dietary fiber and grain products and changes in weight and development of obesity among middle-aged women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2003 Nov;78(5):920-7.

· Pick ME, Hawrysh ZJ, Gee MI, Toth E, Garg ML, Hardin RT. Oat bran concentrate bread products improve long-term control of diabetes: a pilot study. J Am Diet Assoc. 1996 Dec;96(12):1254-61.·Pick ME, Hawrysh ZJ, Gee MI, Toth E, Garg ML, Hardin RT. Oat bran concentrate bread products improve long-term control of diabetes: a pilot study. J Am Diet Assoc. 1996 Dec;96(12):1254-61.

· The Glycemic Index. http://www.glycemicindex.com School of Molecular and Microbial Biosciences, University of Sydney, NSW, Australia. Accessed May 26, 2005.·The Glycemic Index. http://www.glycemicindex.com School of Molecular and Microbial Biosciences, University of Sydney, NSW, Australia. Accessed May 26, 2005.

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