Two more studies link low vitamin D to higher risk of pneumonia and other lung infections 06/06/2013
How much “D” do we need?
Recently, the U.S. Institute of Medicine (IOM) revised the recommended vitamin D intakes upward, to 600 IU/day for adults and 800 IU/day for people older than 70.
The Endocrine Society currently recommends the following vitamin D intakes, preferable vitamin D3 (Holick MF et al. 2011): Age 0 to 1 year: 400 to 1,000 IU/day Age 1 to 18 years: 600 to 1,000 IU/day All adults over age 18: 1,500 to 2,000 IU/day Pregnant or nursing women under age 18: 600 to 1,000 IU/day Pregnant or nursing women over age 18: 1,500 to 2,000 IU/day
There's also general agreement among expert researchers that vitamin D intakes of up to 4000 IU/day are safe.
However, when it raised the vitamin D RDAs in 2010, the IOM only raised the upper intake limit to 2,000 IU.
Frankly, we rely more on advice from the vitamin D and hormone experts at the Endocrine Society, but you must make your own judgment.
Likewise, a recent report by the Institute of Medicine recommended maintaining a blood level of 20 to 50 ng/mL.
But many experts in the field say that people need a blood level of 30 to 100 ng/mL to achieve true vitamin D “sufficiency” … a conclusion embodied in the Endocrine Society's 2011 clinical practice guidelines (Holick MF et al. 2011; Heaney RP et al. 2011).
- Those deemed moderately deficient (35-48.9 nmol/L) were 1.75 times more likely to develop a respiratory disease.
- Those classified as mildly deficient (49.0 to 63.9 nmol/L) were 1.63 times more likely to develop a respiratory disease.
- Aregbesola A, Voutilainen S, Nurmi T, Virtanen JK, Ronkainen K, Tuomainen TP. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 and the risk of pneumonia in an ageing general population. J Epidemiol Community Health. 2013 Jun;67(6):533-6. doi: 10.1136/jech-2012-202027. Epub 2013 Apr 17.
- Camargo CA Jr, Ganmaa D, Frazier AL, Kirchberg FF, Stuart JJ, Kleinman K, Sumberzul N, Rich-Edwards JW. Randomized trial of vitamin D supplementation and risk of acute respiratory infection in Mongolia. Pediatrics. 2012 Sep;130(3):e561-7. doi: 10.1542/peds.2011-3029. Epub 2012 Aug 20.
- Charan J, Goyal JP, Saxena D, Yadav P. Vitamin D for prevention of respiratory tract infections: A systematic review and meta-analysis. J Pharmacol Pharmacother. 2012 Oct;3(4):300-3. doi: 10.4103/0976-500X.103685. de
- Boer IH, Levin G, Robinson-Cohen C, Biggs ML, Hoofnagle AN, Siscovick DS, Kestenbaum B. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration and risk for major clinical disease events in a community-based population of older adults: a cohort study. Ann Intern Med. 2012 May 1;156(9):627-34. doi: 10.1059/0003-4819-156-9-201205010-00004.
- Hirani V. Associations Between Vitamin D and Self-Reported Respiratory Disease in Older People from a Nationally Representative Population Survey. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2013 May 6. doi: 10.1111/jgs.12254. [Epub ahead of print]
- Jolliffe DA, Griffiths CJ, Martineau AR. Vitamin D in the prevention of acute respiratory infection: Systematic review of clinical studies. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2012 Dec 7. doi:pii: S0960-0760(12)00250-6. 10.1016/j.jsbmb.2012.11.017. [Epub ahead of print]
- Sabetta JR, DePetrillo P, Cipriani RJ, Smardin J, Burns LA, Landry ML. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin d and the incidence of acute viral respiratory tract infections in healthy adults. PLoS One. 2010 Jun 14;5(6):e11088. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0011088.
- Virtanen JK, Nurmi T, Voutilainen S, Mursu J, Tuomainen TP. Association of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D with the risk of death in a general older population in Finland. Eur J Nutr. 2011 Aug;50(5):305-12. doi: 10.1007/s00394-010-0138-3. Epub 2010 Oct 26.