Nowadays, modern tank trucks haul millions of baby fish – known as fish fry - from 70 federal hatcheries to rivers, lakes and coastal waters. Usually, the little swimmers arrive alive and healthy. 

But a century ago, in an improbable feat of American ingenuity, these live fish traveled by rail. In what history buffs call “the Fish Car era,” the country’s new railroads allowed us to preserve and widely disperse our fish species. 

The government recognizes an environmental problem

In the late 1860s, it was clear that salmon and American shad were being overfished on the East Coast. After a century of intense fishing, something had to be done. 

Congress, with what in retrospect seems a strange confidence, charged the new Commission of Fish and Fisheries with the task of “supplementing declining native stocks of coastal and lake food fish through fish propagation” (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 2021).

How did they know this was possible or what unfamiliar fish would do to a new environment? They took a chance.  

By the summer of 1872, a man named Livingston Stone had collected and fertilized salmon eggs on the McCloud River in northern California and shipped them east by rail.

A year later, he released thousands of Hudson River shad into the Sacramento River, where they eventually became well established. They made the journey packed into open milk cans, with Stone changing the water every two hours (Fisheries, 2021).

In this great experiment, he thought, the main technical problems were maintaining the right temperature (add ice), keeping the water free of slime, and pumping it with air. 

By 1879, Stone had arranged to send striped bass fry in icy water from New Jersey to California, hiring train passengers to aerate the water by hand with pumps. Soon the service began using an aerating device, a cylinder with tiny holes in the bottom that was filled with water and held over the cans, releasing a fine air-enriched spray. To keep the water pure, the fish were starved beforehand so they didn’t, um, excrete.

Over time, Americans became more interested in boosting the fish in their local streams and lakes. The Commission began sending fry in baggage cars, accompanied by government employees.

The Fish Car Era

In 1881, the Commission purchased a “fish car,” a specifically equipped baggage car. The Baltimore and Ohio Railroad built Fish Car No. 2, fitted with special ice compartments so it could carry up to 20,000 pounds of live fish, water, and equipment at passenger-train speeds. As New York Catskill Mountains archivist Timothy Mallery put it, “federally raised fish traveled first class in railroad cars designed for their health and comfort—along with their human attendants.” 

Old photograph of man changing water from fish pails on train
Fish cars were full of pails of small fish that required constant tending, including frequent water changes. Photo from U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service

By 1884, the Commission had three cars in operation, with the newest equipped to carry fish eggs that hatched in transit. In 1886, 600,000 shad eggs journeyed from Maryland to Portland, Oregon, where the newly-hatched shad and found freedom in the Columbia and Willamette Rivers.

Each car featured more advanced technology than the last. Car No. 4 had cedar tanks and its own motorized air pump. The agency, now called the Bureau of Fisheries, soon had six fish cars crisscrossing the country from spring through the fall. A car might carry about 150 10-gallon cans containing some 15,000 three-inch fish, accompanied by its captain, attendants and a cook, all traveling in style.

On one trip, an employee brought his new bride and the cook prepared a wedding feast as they sped towards North Dakota.

The agency, which didn’t charge for its deliveries, sent telegraphs telling recipients when a shipment was coming to the nearest rail station. The railroads charged 20 cents a mile for their service, but only for about half the miles, and returned empty cans for free. It was, in short, an enterprise propelled largely by public spirit rather than money: Everyone involved saw the benefits of a nation with its waters well-stocked with thriving fish.

Fish cars, a marvel of U.S. cooperation and enterprise, went on display at exhibitions like the Chicago’s World Fair in 1893.

The first steel car, No. 7, could carry almost 50 percent more and led to the retirement of the old wooden cars.  By the early 1920s, fry traveled in advanced "Fearnow" pails, which could carry twice as many fish in half the space with their own built-in ice cooler and electric aerator.

In the first two decades of the 1900s, more than 72 billion fish—pike, perch, shad, whitefish, trout, carp, and landlocked salmon, and others—traveled the country courtesy of the railroads, covering more than two million miles.

The cross-region pollination continued. Lobsters and blue crabs born in Massachusetts went to San Francisco, while Pacific Dungeness crabs traveled east to the Atlantic’s Chesapeake Bay. The system also brought non-native species like brown trout and carp into American waters.

States had their own fishery operations as well. The Pullman Company built a wooden car for the Wisconsin Fish Commission, for example, in 1913. With a steel bottom and tanks, it carried fish to remote streams and rivers around the state, stopping on bridges, where its tanks would be emptied in the water below (Wisconsin, 2021).

The era ends with a bang

Built in 1929, the federal Fish Car No. 10 was huge, 81 feet long, with insulated cubbyholes for 325 cans that could carry as many as half a million one-inch fry. To operate its electric aerators, the car had its own generator. Fish would travel to nearly every state, with the cars running day and night

Old photograph of two men standing in shallow water with fish pails
The final step: Dapper gentlemen in full uniform wade into ponds and creeks to release fish-car passengers into their new homes. Photo from U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service

But the end of the Fish Car era was near. When a load of brook and rainbow trout took a successful plane trip from Michigan to Ohio, flight became a new option. In the 1920s, trucks couldn’t keep fish alive for more than 60 miles or so, but by 1939, modernized tank trucks could carry fish 300 miles at a quarter of the cost of a rail journey.

So by 1940, only three fish cars remained in action. No.10 was taken off the rails in 1947, and its equipment scattered (Mallery, 2021).

Look here for more photos of fish cars in action.

The story of carp

Was seeding various American waterways with non-native fish a good idea? The story of carp is instructive. Native to Asia, carp was prized in Europe. In the 1870s, American fishers were clamoring for carp. U.S. entrepreneurs had launched farms with imported carp, hoping to create an attractive food for the rapidly growing nation.

Responding to public pressure, the national and state fish commissions introduced carp widely. As it turned out, carp can survive in polluted water when other fish can’t. This made it a convenient scapegoat. “People looked past the dredged and straightened channels, drained wetlands, eroded riverbanks, and waters laden with human and industrial waste, saw carp roiling in the shallows, and accused them of wrecking the water” (Buffler and Dickson, 2009). But it was also true that the fish was a nuisance, tending to drive out native fish populations, especially in the Mississippi and its tributaries.  

Now it remains an invasive, destructive species. Americans have tried to kill it and failed. According to the National Park Service, the best way to control carp today would be to remember the original goal: “Ironically, the greatest present promise for carp control hearkens back more than a century, when carp was intended to become a great renewable food source” (NPS, 2019).

In other words, please catch and eat.

Ecologists have also begun considering the dramatic impact of the introduction of another species of fish, the American shad, along the Pacific coastline (Hasselman, 2012). It’s still unclear whether the shad, native to the Atlantic, is harmless or hurting the indigenous fish such as salmon in western American waters.

Science, and public knowledge, evolves. In 1990, Congress established the Aquatic Nuisance Species (ANS) Task Force to address the problem.

The fish-car period, then, can be remembered as the beginning of a new era, which continues to the present day, of actively managing natural resources to preserve them for future generations.

The trick? Leaven that management with humility.

Spreading fish willy-nilly across the continent was a mixed blessing. Using high-tech transport specifically to revive native fish populations is probably a better idea.  



Buffler R, Dickson T.  Fishing for Buffalo: A Guide to the Pursuit and Cuisine of Carp, Suckers, Eelpout, Gar, and Other Rough Fish ‎ University of Minnesota Press; 2009

Fisheries NOAA. Transporting fish by rail. NOAA. Published June 2021.

Hasselman D, Henrichsen R, Shields B, Ebbesmeyer C. The rapid establishment, dispersal, and increased abundance of INVASIVE American SHAD in the Pacific Northwest. Taylor & Francis. Published March 2012.

Mallery, T. The fish car era of the National Fish Hatchery system. Catskill Archive.  Mountaintop Historical Society Accessed July 30, 2021.

National Parks Service. History of common carp in North America Published June 24, 2019.

This train hauls fish up a mountain for a living. Accessed July 30, 2021.

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service/Fish and Aquatic Conservation. About us. Accessed August 2, 2021.

Wisconsin Fish Commission #2 Accessed August 2, 2021.