Few subjects elicit more emotion than the safety of food eaten by pregnant or nursing women and its impacts – good or bad – on their children.
That's as it should be, given the vulnerability of fetuses and infants, and the importance of optimal brain development to childhood and lifelong capacities and outcomes.

Key Points
  • A landmark FDA analysis of the risks and rewards of fish supports lifting the 12-oz-per-week limit on lower-mercury fish currently advised to children and pregnant/nursing mothers.
  • Higher-mercury fish defined in the current guidelines should remain off-limits to children and pregnant/nursing mothers.
  • As a precaution, Vital Choice offers only the lowest-mercury seafood.
  • Criticisms of the FDA analysis by some eco-groups are misleading.
But all of the studies published on this subject find that children's brains benefit when their mothers eat more fish during pregnancy and nursing, and that children are not harmed by the minuscule amounts of mercury in most ocean fish.

This is how Harvard public health researchers put it in a recent medical literature review (Mozaffarian D, Rimm EB et al. 2006):
  • "For major health outcomes among adults, based on the strength of the evidence and the potential magnitudes of effect, the benefits of fish intake exceed the potential risks.”
  • "For women of childbearing age, benefits of modest fish intake, excepting a few selected species, also outweigh risks.”
The few exceptions to which they refershark, swordfish, king mackerel, and tilefishshould be avoided by children and pregnant/nursing mothers.

This has been the joint position of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) since 2004, when they issued a joint advisory for mothers and children:
  • Eat up to 12 ounces (2 average meals) a week of a variety of commonly eaten fish and shellfish found consistently low in mercury, including shrimp, canned light tuna, salmon, pollock, and catfish.
  • Limit albacore tuna to 6 oz per week.
  • Do not eat shark, swordfish, king mackerel, or tilefish because they contain high levels of mercury.
We have no quarrel with the warning that children and pregnant/nursing women should avoid these specific high-mercury fish.

But as a new U.S. FDA analysis of the research shows, the evidence supports lifting the 12-oz-per-week limit on consumption of the vast majority of fish that are much lower in mercury

In addition to its report – titled "Quantitative Risk and Benefit Assessment of Commercial Fish  the FDA issued a companion report, "Summary of Research on the Beneficial Effects of Fish Consumption.

In fact, people of any age can safely consume and enjoy the health benefits of almost any kind of seafood
 – with very few exceptions – several times a week.
Vital Choice Albacore:
Superior to national brands
The current FDA-EPA advisory suggests that pregnant/nursing women eat no more than 6 ounces (one average meal) of albacore tuna per week.

The advisory notes that albacore tuna – known as "white” tuna – is generally higher in mercury than "light” tuna (usually skipjack tuna).

However, that is not true of smaller, younger, Vital Choice Pacific Albacore Tuna, which is sustainably troll-caught far out in the Pacific Ocean by local Bellingham, Washington, fisherman Paul Hill.

At our request, Paul hand-selects the smallest fish for us, to ensure the lowest possible mercury levels and the most tender flesh.

Compared with standard canned albacore, our fresh and canned albacore averages less mercury.

This does not mean that we consider the older, larger albacore used in standard canned tuna to be unsafe.

Instead, it simply means that we prefer to err on the side of caution. And because we are committed to maximum sustainability, we prefer to purchase tuna from the only tuna fishery in the world certified sustainable by the Marine Stewardship Council.

Paul Hill was instrumental in gaining prized MSC sustainability certification for the North Pacific and South Pacific troll-caught albacore fisheries … a story we will cover in a future issue of Vital Choices.

FDA analysis of mercury-seafood-children science leaked by EPA staffers
Late last week, The Washington Post reported on a leaked draft analysis of the evidence on fish, mercury, and children from the FDA.

The draft contains no proposals for relaxing the EPA-FDA seafood intake advice for mothers and younger children, but its conclusions point clearly in that direction.
The FDA paper notes the growing evidence that regular, frequent seafood consumption presents no risk to children.

That is, the best available evidence shows that the rewards of eating lower-mercury seafood (i.e., almost all ocean species) are clear, while the risk of harm remains undocumented and hypothetical… except among children who eat lots of the very high-mercury fishidentified in the current EPA-FDA guidelines.

Unfortunately, some groups downplay the proven developmental rewards of seafood and grossly exaggerate the virtually non-existent risks of consuming most any seafood frequently.

The FDA draft notes that the nutrients in fish
 – especially omega-3 fatty acids, selenium, vitamin D, and others – could boost a child's intelligence quotient (IQ) by an estimated three points.

And the food regulation agency also points to the preponderance of evidence showing that the greatest benefits to children would result if pregnant women, women of childbearing age, nursing mothers and young children eat more than 12 ounces of fish a week, which would mean lifting the limit currently advised by the FDA and EPA.

No doubt, the notable developmental and health benefits of fish – especially fattier fish like wild salmon, sardines, tuna, sablefish, and mackerel – flow from their abundance of omega-3s, vitamin D, selenium, and other key nutrients.

According to the National Fisheries Institute (a trade group), Americans currently consume only five ounces a week of fish high in omega-3s, which is less than half the amount (12 ounces per week) recommended by the FDA and EPA.

And the NFI estimates that some 14 percent of women of childbearing age eat no fish at all, despite the fact that omega-3s are essential to proper fetal brain and eye development.

To see some of our past coverage of this issue, see, "Women's Health Advocates Decry Unintended Effects of Mercury Directives.

FDA proposal flows from findings of risk-reward studies
There is ample evidence that children benefit from eating fish, as we reported in "Findings Verify Safety and Value of Higher Maternal Fish Intake” and "Mothers and Kids Urged to Eat More Fish.”

The best available evidence concerning the connections between dietary fish, fish-borne mercury, and child development comes from three epidemiological studies conducted from the 1980s through today, among children who ate much more fish than the average American child:
  • The Faroe Islands (1,022 children).
  • The Seychelles Islands (799 children).
  • New Zealand (237 children).
In both the Faroe Islands and Seychelles studies, American researchers administered tests that evaluated essentially the same aspects of brain development: general cognitive, visual-perceptual, speech-language, visual memory, visual attention, neuromotor-neurological, social-emotional, and learning achievement.
  • "Two major studies, in the Seychelles and Faroe Islands, where exposure to methylmercury is roughly an order of magnitude [ten times] higher than it is in the United States on average, produced mixed results, i.e., the Seychelles study did not find a consistent association between methylmercury and neurodevelopment while the Faroe Islands study found subtle adverse associations between methylmercury and neurodevelopment.”
    Omega-3s and kids: Why fish is better than flaxseed

    Only fish—especially fatty fish—provide usable (long-chain) omega-3s to human cells, where they exert singular influences that enable optimal childhood development… and enhance health at every age.

    The superiority of long-chain omega-3s explains why mothers and children should seek out the only significant food sources: fish, algae, and shellfish.

    The long-chain omega-3 fatty acid called DHA is an essential component of brains and eyes, which explains why fish-borne omega-3 fatty acids are ideal for optimizing fetal and infant development.

    There is a short-chain omega-3 fatty acid known as ALA in nuts, seeds (especially flax and hemp), certain vegetable oils, and dark, leafy greens.  But mothers' bodies can only convert a small percent of ALA to DHA: just enough to ensure adequate—but likely not optimal—development.  This is why nutrition-savvy pediatricians like Dr. William Sears recommend that expectant mothers eat ample amounts of low-mercury fish.

    The reasons for the human body's affinity for the long-chain omega-3s in fish may lie in our evolutionary past, when, a growing body of evidence suggests, early hominids gravitated to food-rich rivers, lakes, and ocean shores.

    These environments offered the abundance of omega-3-rich fish, shellfish, amphibians, and aquatic plants necessary to development of modern humans' outsized, heavily omega-3-dependent brains.
  • "…concentrations of methylmercury in the bodies of… women [in the SeychellesIslands] were found to be about 15 times higher than in U.S. women on average. Fish in the U.S. marketplace and fish in the Seychelles have about the same amounts of methylmercury in them.”
  • "Unlike the Seychelles, where the only source of methylmercury was fish, most of the methylmercury in the Faroe Islands diets came from eating pilot whale in addition to fish.”
  • "When the [Harvard-based] researchers later examined the effect on fetal neurodevelopment solely from maternal fish consumption in the Faroe Islandswithout any pilot whale, they discovered that the adverse effects were replaced by beneficial effects.  Pilot whale lacks many of the nutrients found in fish [and is extremely high in PCBs, which appear to exert adverse effects on developing brains].”
  • "This finding about fish in the Faroe Islands is consistent with a current trend in research results from the United States and elsewhere in favor of a beneficial impact on fetal neurodevelopment from the mother's consumption of fish, even though the fish contain methylmercury.”
  • "Moreover, greater fish consumption has been associated with greater benefits. On the other hand, in several studies the methylmercury appeared to reduce the size of the benefits. This latter finding suggests that it matters whether the fish are low or high in methylmercury.

For our earlier discussion of the Faroes and Seychelles studies, see "Fight over Mercury Risks Muddied by Bad Science.”

Harvard analyses from 2005 support the new FDA paper
Among others, the the Faroes and Seychelles studies provided the foundation for five separate Harvard-led dietary fish risk/reward analyses and two expert commentaries that were published in the November, 2005 edition of the American Journal of Preventive Medicine (See "Women's Health Advocates Decry Unintended Effects of Mercury Directives”).

The research teams wanted to determine whether the benefits of lower mercury exposure among pregnant women outweighed the loss of omega-3 fatty acids from decreased fish consumption. They also examined what would happen if the public reacted inappropriately to government's recommendations regarding mercury and fish.

Indeed, their research showed that fish benefit children and adults, and that confusion and fears created by government mercury warnings directed to expectant/nursing mothers caused these and many other women to cut fish intake, thereby tossing out the health-promoting omega-3 baby with the mercury-fear bathwater (Oken E et al. 2005).

Their findings clearly refuted, in advance, the inaccurate hyperbole found in a letter concerning the FDA's draft analysis, sent last week to the EPA by the Environmental Working Group (EWG).

In that hyperventilating letter, the EWG wildly exaggerated the (virtually non-existent) evidence of harm to Americans of any age from ingesting the trace amounts of mercury in fish (Wiles R 2008).

Eco-group issues misleading letter to EPA
Some EPA scientists were unhappy with the FDA's analysis, which supports many researchers' proposals to relax fish intake guidelines for mother and children, and leaked it to the media and environmental groups.

The Environmental Working Group, an advocacy organization, issued a review that says, "Based on the documents we have seen, some gaps and flawed reasoning are obvious. For example, the FDA paper makes no distinction among various species of fish, ignoring many scientific studies showing that species vary widely in their accumulation of mercury.”

This is a complete misrepresentation of the FDA draft, which repeatedly highlights the distinction among various species of fish.

The best available evidence supports a policy of encouraging mothers, children, and everyone to enjoy more seafood… the vast majority of which is perfectly safe to eat in abundance.

We can only hope that misleading responses to the FDA draft analysis from some eco-groups don't obscure what the researchers themselves say, almost without reservation: more fish is good for kids.

This is why it makes sense to assure women that virtually all seafood is safe and beneficial when eaten several times weekly, and concentrate on highlighting
 – perhaps via printed label/package warnings – the four highest-mercury ocean species.

Where we stand on the FDA findings
The FDA's findings echo similar ones from the European Commission (EC), the independent, U.S.-based Maternal Nutrition Group, and U.S. NIH brain and behavior expert Joseph Hibbeln, M.D., who led key seafood-development studies analyzed in the FDA paper; see "More-Fish-for-Moms" Report Affirmed in Europe.

We believe these expert observers make a compelling case for lifting the 12-oz-per-week limit from the EPA-FDA guidelines for children and pregnant/nursing mothers.

But we think that two key parts of the advisory should remain in place for now:
  • Children and pregnant/nursing mothers should avoid shark, swordfish, king mackerel, and tilefish.
  • Children and pregnant/nursing mothers should eat no more than 6 ounces of standard albacore tuna* per week.
*Note: Predatory fish like tuna accumulate mercury over time, so our small, young, Pacific albacore rank much lower in mercury than national brands; see the sidebar titled "Vital Choice Albacore: exceptionally pure” (The same is true of our small, young, Alaskan halibut).

Compared with standard canned albacore, our fresh and canned albacore averages levels about four times lower. (See our mercury chart here.)

While the evidence shows that almost all fish are safe and beneficial for children to eat several times a week, the evidence supports advice to avoid the four species highest in mercury, and freshwater fish that are subject to warnings.

And the evidence suggests that children and pregnant/nursing mothers should indeed limit intake of standard, national-brand canned albacore tuna, which consists mostly of much older, larger, higher-mercury fish than our fresh and canned small albacore.

  • ALSPAC Study Team. Accessed online at http://www.alspac.bris.ac.uk/welcome/index.shtml Feb 17, 2007.
  • Axtell CD, Cox C, Myers GJ, Davidson PW, Choi AL, Cernichiari E, Sloane-Reeves J, Shamlaye CF, Clarkson TW. Association between methylmercury exposure from fish consumption and child development at five and a half years of age in the Seychelles Child Development Study: an evaluation of nonlinear relationships. Environ Res. 2000 Oct;84(2):71-80.
  • Bouzan C, Cohen JT, Connor WE, Kris-Etherton PM, Gray GM, König A, Lawrence RS, Savitz DA, Teutsch SM. A Quantitative Analysis of Fish Consumption and Stroke Risk. Am J Prev Med 2005 Nov;29(4):347-352
  • Budtz-Jorgensen E, Grandjean P, Weihe P. 2007. Separation of risks and benefits of seafood intake. Environ Health Perspect 115(3): 323-7.
  • Choi AL, Cordier S, Weihe P, Grandjean P. 2008. Negative confounding in the evaluation of toxicity: the case of methylmercury in fish and seafood. Crit Rev Toxicol 38(10): 877-93.
  • Cohen JT, Bellinger DC, Connor WE, Kris-Etherton PM, Lawrence RS, Savitz DA, Shaywitz BA, Teutsch SM, Gray GM. A Quantitative Risk–Benefit Analysis of Changes in Population Fish Consumption. Am J Prev Med 2005 Nov;29(4):325-334
  • Cohen JT, Bellinger DC, Connor WE, Shaywitz BA. A Quantitative Analysis of Prenatal Intake of n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Cognitive Developmen. Am J Prev Med 2005 Nov;29(4):366.e1-366.e12
  • Cohen JT, Bellinger DC, Shaywitz BA. A Quantitative Analysis of Prenatal Methyl Mercury Exposure and Cognitive Development. Am J Prev Med 2005 Nov;29(4):353.e1-353.e24
  • Committee on the Toxicological Effects of Methylmercury, Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology, National Research Council. Toxicological Effects of Methylmercury: Executive Summary. Accessed online December 6, 2006 at http://newton.nap.edu/execsumm_pdf/9899.pdf
  • Crump KS, Kjellström T, Shipp AM, Silvers A, Stewart A. Influence of prenatal mercury exposure upon scholastic and psychological test performance: benchmark analysis of a New Zealand cohort. Risk Anal. 1998 Dec;18(6):701-13.
  • Cunnane SC, Crawford MA. Survival of the fattest: fat babies were the key to evolution of the large human brain. Comp Biochem Physiol 2003;136A:17-26.
  • Cunnane SC. Origins and evolution of the Western diet: implications of iodine and seafood intakes for the human brain (Letter to the Editor). Am J Clin Nutr 2005 Aug; 82(2):483
  • Daniels JL, Longnecker MP, Rowland AS, Golding J; ALSPAC Study Team. University of Bristol Institute of Child Health. Fish intake during pregnancy and early cognitive development of offspring. Epidemiology. 2004 Jul;15(4):394-402.
  • Davidson PW, Myer GJ, Shamlaye C, Cox C, Gao P, Axtell C, Morris D, Sloane-Reeves J, Cernichiari E, Choi A, Palumbo D, Clarkson TW. Association between prenatal exposure to methylmercury and developmental outcomes in Seychellois children: effect modification by social and environmental factors. Neurotoxicology. 1999 Oct;20(5):833-41.
  • Denomme J, Stark KD, Holub BJ. Directly quantitated dietary (n-3) fatty acid intakes of pregnant Canadian women are lower than current dietary recommendations. J Nutr. 2005 Feb;135(2):206-11.
  • Domingo JL, Bocio A, Falco G, Llobet JM. 2007. Benefits and risks of fish consumption Part I. A quantitative analysis of the intake of omega-3 fatty acids and chemical contaminants. Toxicology 230(2-3): 219-26.
  • Ginsberg GL, Toal BF. 2000. Development of a single-meal fish consumption advisory for methyl mercury. Risk Anal 20(1): 41-7.
  • Golding J, Pembrey M, Jones RALSPAC Study Team. ALSPAC: the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. I. Study methodology. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol 2001; 15: 74-87.
  • Goldstein A. Moms Should Eat More Fish, Industry-Backed Group Says. Accessed online October 11, 2007 at http://www.bloomberg.com/apps/news?pid=20601101&sid=axA77zz5n5sA.
  • Hibbeln JR, Davis JM, Steer C, Emmett P,  Rogers I, Williams C, Golding J. Maternal seafood consumption in pregnancy and neurodevelopmental outcomes in childhood (ALSPAC study): an observational cohort study. The Lancet 2007; 369:578-585.
  • HMHB (National Healthy Mothers, Healthy Babies Coalition). For Pregnant Women, Benefits of Eating Ocean Fish Outweigh Concerns from Trace Levels of Mercury: Experts in Obstetrics and Nutrition Unveil Seafood Consumption Recommendations During Pregnancy. Accessed online October 7, 2007 at http://www.hmhb.org/oceanfishpr.html
  • Koletzko B, Cetin I, Thomas Brenna J; for the Perinatal Lipid Intake Working Group. Dietary fat intakes for pregnant and lactating women. Br J Nutr. 2007 Nov;98(5):873-7. Epub 2007 Aug 10.
  • König A, Bouzan C, Cohen JT, Connor WE, Kris-Etherton PM, Gray GM, Lawrence RS, Savitz DA, Teutsch SM. A Quantitative Analysis of Fish Consumption and Coronary Heart Disease Mortality. Am J Prev Med 2005 Nov;29(4):335-346
  • Layton L. FDA Draft Report Urges Consumption of Fish, Despite Mercury Contamination. Washington Post, December 12, 2008. Accessed online December 12, 2008 at http://www.washingtonpost.com/
  • Loosemore ED, Judge MP, Lammi-Keefe CJ. Dietary intake of essential and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in pregnancy. Lipids. 2004 May;39(5):421-4.
  • Mahaffey KR, Clickner RP, Bodurow CC. 2004. Blood organic mercury and dietary mercury intake: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999 and 2000. Environ Health Perspect 112(5): 562-70.
  • Mahaffey KR, Clickner RP, Jeffries RA. 2008. Methylmercury and omega-3 fatty acids: co-occurrence of dietary sources with emphasis on fish and shellfish. Environ Res 107(1): 20-9.
  • Mahaffey KR, Clickner RP, Jeffries RA. 2008. Methylmercury and omega-3 fatty acids: co-occurrence of dietary sources with emphasis on fish and shellfish. Environ Res 107(1): 20-9.
  • Mahaffey KR. 2004. Fish and shellfish as dietary sources of methylmercury and the omega-3 fatty acids, eicosahexaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid: risks and benefits. Environ Res 95(3): 414-28.
  • Maternal Nutrition Group. Seafood Recommendations During Pregnancy. Accessed online October 7, 2007 at http://www.brainybabieshealthykids.org/seafood-recommendations-for-pregnancy/
  • McMichael AJ, Butler CD. Fish, Health, and Sustainability. Am J Prev Med 2005 Nov;29(4):322-323
  • MercuryFacts.com. Accessed online December 6, 2006 at http://www.mercuryfacts.com/
  • Mitchell JW, Kjellstrom TE, Reeves RL. Mercury in takeaway fish in New Zealand. N Z Med J. 1982 Feb 24;95(702):112-4.
  • Moore L. Follow Up to Utility Industry-Funded Study Leads to Finding that Mercury in Fish No Problem, Scores of Independent Studies Suggest Otherwise: Seafood Industry Hypes Lone Study Criticized by National Academy of Sciences. May 15, 2003. Accessed online December 6, 2006 at http://www.ewg.org/issues/mercury/20030521/index.php
  • Mozaffarian D, Rimm EB. Fish intake, contaminants, and human health: evaluating the risks and the benefits. JAMA. 2006 Oct 18;296(15):1885-99. Review. Erratum in: JAMA. 2007 Feb 14;297(6):590.
  • Myers GJ, Davidson PW, Cox C, Shamlaye CF, Palumbo D, Cernichiari E, Sloane-Reeves J, Wilding GE, Kost J, Huang LS, Clarkson TW. Prenatal methylmercury exposure from ocean fish consumption in the Seychelles child development study. Lancet. 2003 May 17;361(9370):1686-92.
  • Myers GJ, Davidson PW, Cox C, Shamlaye CF, Palumbo D, Cernichiari E, Sloane-Reeves J, Wilding GE, Kost J, Huang LS, Clarkson TW. Prenatal methylmercury exposure from ocean fish consumption in the Seychelles child development study. Lancet. 2003 May 17;361(9370):1686-92.
  • Myers GJ, Davidson PW, Palumbo D, Shamlaye C, Cox C, Cernichiari E, Clarkson TW. Secondary analysis from the Seychelles Child Development Study: the child behavior checklist. Environ Res. 2000 Sep;84(1):12-9.
  • Newswise/Medical News, July 19, 2005. IFT hears Americans not eating enough fish for good health. Accessed online July 20, 2005 at http://www.newswise.com/articles/view/513221/
  • Oken E, Bellinger DC. 2008. Fish consumption, methylmercury and child neurodevelopment. Curr Opin Pediatr 20(2): 178-83.
  • Oken E, Kleinman KP, Berland WE, Simon SR, Rich-Edwards JW, Gillman MW. Decline in fish consumption among pregnant women after a national mercury advisory. Obstet Gynecol. 2003 Aug;102(2):346-51.
  • Oken E, Radesky JS, Wright RO, Bellinger DC, Amarasiriwardena CJ, Kleinman KP, et al. 2008. Maternal Fish Intake during Pregnancy, Blood Mercury Levels, and Child Cognition at Age 3 Years in a US Cohort. Am J Epidemiol 167(10): 1171-81.
  • Palumbo DR, Cox C, Davidson PW, Myers GJ, Choi A, Shamlaye C, Sloane-Reeves J, Cernichiari E, Clarkson TW. Association between prenatal exposure to methylmercury and cognitive functioning in Seychellois children: a reanalysis of the McCarthy Scales of Children's Ability from the main cohort study. Environ Res. 2000 Oct;84(2):81-8.
  • Reinberg S. Fish Safe for Pregnant Women to Eat. Accessed online October 7, 2007 at http://health.msn.com/pregnancykids/articlepage.aspx?cp-documentid=100171470
  • Sakamoto M, Kubota M, Liu XJ, Murata K, Nakai K, Satoh H. 2004. Maternal and fetal mercury and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids as a risk and benefit of fish consumption to fetus. Environ Sci Technol 38(14): 3860-3.
  • Springen K. Pregnant Women: Eat More Fish or Not? Newsweek. Accessed online Feb 17, 2007 at http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/17177330/site/newsweek/
  • Squires S. Advisory at Odds With FDA Stance. Washington Post. Accessed online October 7, 2007 at http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/10/03/AR2007100301278.html
  • Stern AH. 2005. Balancing the risks and benefits of fish consumption. Ann Intern Med 142(11): 949.
  • Teutsch SM, Cohen JT. Health Trade-offs from Policies to Alter Fish Consumption. Am J Prev Med 2005 Nov;29(4):324
  • Tsuchiya A, Hardy J, Burbacher TM, Faustman EM, Marien K. 2008. Fish intake guidelines: incorporating n-3 fatty acid intake and contaminant exposure in the Korean and Japanese communities. Am J Clin Nutr 87(6): 1867-75.
  • U.S. FDA. January 15, 2009. Report of Quantitative Risk and Benefit Assessment of Consumption of Commercial Fish, Focusing on Fetal Neurodevelopment Effects (Measured by Verbal Development in Children) and on Coronary Heart Disease and Stroke in the General Population: Peer Review Report. Accessed at [draft] http://1.usa.gov/1jCtluq and [final] http://1.usa.gov/1mLsNFp
  • U.S. FDA. January, 2009. Summary of Published Research on the Beneficial Effects of Fish Consumption and Omega-3 Fatty Acids for Certain Neurodevelopmental and Cardiovascular Endpoints. Accessed at http://1.usa.gov/QGOmKw
  • van Wijngaarden E, Beck C, Shamlaye CF, Cernichiari E, Davidson PW, Myers GJ, Davidson PW, Myers GJ, Weiss B, Shamlaye CF, Cox C. Prenatal methyl mercury exposure from fish consumption and child development: A review of evidence and perspectives from the Seychelles Child Development Study. Neurotoxicology. 2006 Apr 15; [Epub ahead of print]
  • van Wijngaarden E, Beck C, Shamlaye CF, Cernichiari E, Davidson PW, Myers GJ, Clarkson TW. Benchmark concentrations for methyl mercury obtained from the 9-year follow-up of the Seychelles Child Development Study. Neurotoxicology. 2006 Jun 2; [Epub ahead of print]
  • What You Need to Know about Mercury in Fish and Shellfish: 2004 EPA and FDA Advice for: Women Who Might Become Pregnant, Women Who are Pregnant, Nursing Mothers, Young Children. Accessed online October 21, 2005 at http://www.epa.gov/waterscience/fishadvice/advice.html
  • Wiles R. Environmental Working Group. FDA's Midnight Mischief Heightens Mercury Risk to Pregnant Women, Infants: EWG's letter to EPA. December 2008. Accessed online December 12, 2008 at http://www.ewg.org/node/27436
  • Willett WC. Fish: Balancing Health Risks and Benefits. Am J Prev Med 2005 Nov;29(4):320-321