Clinical findings put the spotlight back on the quantity of sugars consumed, not the type
High-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) is made chemically, from corn.
Its low cost in the U.S., versus cane sugar, make it the top added sugar in many supermarket and takeout foods.
Foods that typically contain HFCS include breads, soda, dressings, sauces, frozen meals, desserts, pastries, canned foods, and condiments.
But cane sugar and HFCS are about equally abundant in fructose, with each sweetener being half glucose and half fructose (HFCS ranges from 45 to 55 percent fructose).
Since the beginning of 2012, a team from various Canadian universities and hospitals has been examining the effects of fructose on risk factors for diabetes.
Their findings make sense – given that fructose is metabolized differently from glucose – and undermine attempts to demonize this particular sugar.
Trials find fructose aids blood sugar control
A new review of the clinical evidence suggests that modest amounts of fructose may actually aid in blood sugar control.
“Over the last decade, there have been connections made between fructose intake and rates of obesity,” said Dr. John Sievenpiper, a senior author of the study. “However, this research suggests that the problem is likely one of overconsumption, not fructose.”
The study authors reviewed 18 trials with 209 participants who had Type 1 and 2 diabetes … and their analysis showed that modest fructose intake significantly improved patients' blood sugar control.
Amazingly, the improvements in blood sugar control fell into the range seen with glitizars … the leading anti-diabetes drugs.
Even more promising, Sievenpiper said, is that small amounts of added fructose had no adverse effects on body weight, blood pressure, uric acid (gout) or cholesterol.
In all the trials they reviewed, participants were fed diets where fructose was incorporated or sprinkled on to test foods such as cereals or coffee.
Critically, the diets with fructose had the same amount of calories as the ones without. “Attention needs to go back where it belongs, which is on the concept of moderation,” said lead author Adrian Cozma.
“We're seeing that there may be benefit if fructose wasn't being consumed in such large amounts,” Cozma said. “All negative attention on fructose-related harm draws further away from the issue of eating too many calories.”
Although the results are encouraging, the authors warn that it's important to be cautious because longer and larger studies are still needed.
Cozma AI, Sievenpiper JL, de Souza RJ, Chiavaroli L, Ha V, Wang DD, Mirrahimi A, Yu ME, Carleton AJ, Di Buono M, Jenkins AL, Leiter LA, Wolever TM, Beyene J, Kendall CW, Jenkins DJ. Effect of fructose on glycemic control in diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled feeding trials. Diabetes Care. 2012 Jul;35(7):1611-20. doi: 10.2337/dc12-0073. Review.
Ha V, Sievenpiper JL, de Souza RJ, Chiavaroli L, Wang DD, Cozma AI, Mirrahimi A, Yu ME, Carleton AJ, Dibuono M, Jenkins AL, Leiter LA, Wolever TM, Beyene J, Kendall CW, Jenkins DJ. Effect of fructose on blood pressure: a systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled feeding trials. Hypertension. 2012 Apr;59(4):787-95. Epub 2012 Feb 13. Review.
Sievenpiper JL, Chiavaroli L, de Souza RJ, Mirrahimi A, Cozma AI, Ha V, Wang DD, Yu ME, Carleton AJ, Beyene J, Di Buono M, Jenkins AL, Leiter LA, Wolever TM, Kendall CW, Jenkins DJ. 'Catalytic' doses of fructose may benefit glycaemic control without harming cardiometabolic risk factors: a small meta-analysis of randomised controlled feeding trials. Br J Nutr. 2012 Aug;108(3):418-23. doi: 10.1017/S000711451200013X. Epub 2012 Feb 21. Review.
Taylor K. New evidence in fructose debate: Could it be healthy for us? June 21, 2012. Accessed at http://www..com/media/detail.php?source=hospital_news/2012/20120621_hn
Wang DD, Sievenpiper JL, de Souza RJ, Chiavaroli L, Ha V, Cozma AI, Mirrahimi A, Yu ME, Carleton AJ, Di Buono M, Jenkins AL, Leiter LA, Wolever TM, Beyene J, Kendall CW, Jenkins DJ. The effects of fructose intake on serum uric acid vary among controlled dietary trials. J Nutr. 2012 May;142(5):916-23. Epub 2012 Mar 28. Review.