Salmon navigate thousands of miles of open ocean to locate their birth river and journey upstream to spawn.
Sea turtles and certain other creatures perform similar stunts. How the heck do they do it?
This seeming miracle has mystified biologists … but a new study may offer a clue to wild salmon’s seafaring feat.
Once they get close enough to home, Pacific salmon use their sense of smell to follow chemical cues emanating from their own birth river, so that they can swim upstream to spawn and die (Lohmann KJ et al. 2008).
Sadly, even tiny changes in the metal or organic content of a river – such as those caused by mining or logging – can wreak havoc with salmons’ ability to find their birth river and spawning ground.
That much is known, but as the authors of the new study wrote, “… how they navigate from the open ocean to the correct coastal area has remained enigmatic.” (Putman NF et al. 2013)
The scientists, based at Oregon State University, examined 56 years of fisheries data on the return of sockeye salmon to the Fraser River in British Columbia.
And they report that the route that salmon chose around Vancouver Island showed a correlation with changes in the intensity of the geomagnetic field.
“What we think happens is that when salmon leave the river system as juveniles and enter the ocean, they imprint the magnetic field – logging it in as a waypoint,” said lead author Nathan Putman.
“It serves as a proxy for geographic location when they return as adults. It gets them close to their river system and then other, finer cues may take over.” (OSU 2013)
Earth’s magnetic field serves as a salmon’s GPS Earth has a predictable, consistent geomagnetic field that weakens as you move from the poles toward the equator.
The magnetic North Pole has an intensity gradient of roughly 58 microtesla, while the equator is about 24 microtesla.
Salmon originating from Oregon that have spent two to four years in the northern Pacific Ocean off Canada or Alaska would return as adults, the scientists speculate, journeying southward off the coast until they reached a magnetic field intensity similar to that of their youth.
“That should get them to within 50 to 100 kilometers of their own river system and then olfactory cues or some other sense kicks on,” said Putman, who conducts research in OSU’s Department of Fisheries and Wildlife (OSU 2013).
Vancouver Island provides a natural laboratory for the study of salmon, the researchers point out. Salmon returning to the Fraser River must detour around the massive island to reach the mouth of the river, choosing a southern or northern route.
In their study, the scientists found that the “drift” of the geomagnetic field correlated with which route the salmon chose.
When the normal intensity level for the Fraser River shifted to the north, the sockeye were more likely to choose a northern route for their return. When the field shifted slightly south, they chose a southern route.
This “field drift” accounted for about 16 percent of the variation in the migration route, Putman said, while variations in sea surface temperatures accounted for 22 percent.
The interactive effect between these two variables accounted for an additional 28 percent of the variation in the migration route.
“Salmon are a cold-water fish, and all things being equal, they prefer cold water,” said Putman. “But the fact that they also demonstrate geomagnetic fidelity in choosing a route shows that this could be a major instrument in their biological toolbox to guide their way home.” (OSU 2013)
Putman’s previous studies of the Columbia River showed that the magnetic intensity shifts less than 30 kilometers in either direction over a period of three years, which is about the length of time many salmon spend in the ocean.
“Salmon have to get it right because they only have one chance to make it back to their home river,” Putman said, “so it makes sense that they may have more than one way to get there. The magnetic field is amazingly consistent, so that is a strategy that can withstand the test of time. But they may also use the sun as a compass, track waves breaking on the beach through infrasound, and use smell.” (OSU 2013)
Putman and OSU fisheries biologist David Noakes plan to follow through with experiments on varying the magnetic field for salmon in a laboratory setting, using the Oregon Hatchery Research Center in Oregon’s Alsea River basin.
Other authors on the study include Kenneth Lohmann, University of North Carolina; Emily Putman, an independent researcher; Thomas Quinn, University of Washington; A. Peter Klimley, University of California, Davis; and David Noakes, Oregon State University.
The study was supported by Oregon Sea Grant and the National Science Foundation.
- Benhamou S, Sudre J, Bourjea J, Ciccione S, De Santis A, Luschi P. The role of geomagnetic cues in green turtle open sea navigation. PLoS One. 2011;6(10):e26672. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0026672. Epub 2011 Oct 26.
- Lohmann KJ, Lohmann CM, Endres CS. The sensory ecology of ocean navigation. J Exp Biol. 2008 Jun;211(Pt 11):1719-28. doi: 10.1242/jeb.015792. Review. Lohmann KJ, Lohmann CM, Putman NF. Magnetic maps in animals: nature's GPS. J Exp Biol. 2007 Nov;210(Pt 21):3697-705.
- Lohmann KJ, Putman NF, Lohmann CM. Geomagnetic imprinting: A unifying hypothesis of long-distance natal homing in salmon and sea turtles. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008 Dec 9;105(49):19096-101. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0801859105. Epub 2008 Dec 5. Review.
- Oregon State University (OSU). OSU study: Salmon may use magnetic field as a navigational aid. Feburary 7, 2013. Accessed at http://oregonstate.edu/ua/ncs/archives/2013/feb/osu-study-salmon-may-use-magnetic-field-navigational-aid
- Putman NF et al. Evidence for Geomagnetic Imprinting as a Homing Mechanism in Pacific Salmon. Current Biology, 07 February 2013. DOI: 10.1016/j.cub.2012.12.041 Accessed at http://www.cell.com/current-biology/abstract/S0960-9822(13)00003-1